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SAT考试官方指南OG真题试题及解析(第一套)

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摘要: SAT真题OG真题:SAT真题对每位将要考试SAT的考生来说都是比较重要的,因为从这些SAT真题试题上可以找寻一些规律,更加着重的复习。新航道北京学校SAT频道官网为各位考生整理了SAT考试官方指南OG真题试题及解析,供考生们参考使用。

 

 

第一套答案解析

Sample Essay - Score of 6 
Throughout time mankind has strived to make his life easier. Whether it be through technology, 
science, or theories of social interaction every generation has made one contribution. From the idea of 
crop rotation to the cellular telephone mankind has advanced. It can be argued however, that not all 
of these advancements were beneficial. Many times people are accused of “taking the easy way out”, 
something that is looked down upon in today’s society. 
Consider, if you will, ancient Greecian Society. With hardly any of the technological or scientific 
advancements we have today, they were able to produce some of the greatest thinkers of all time. 
Socrates and Plato still influence modern philosophical thought. In addition, these men were well 
versed in all disciplines. They were thinkers, mathamaticians, writers, scientists, artists and much 
more. Examine some other great men in history. Leonardo Davinci was one of the greatest scientists 
and also one of the greatest artists of all time, he even invented and drew up early plans for the 
helicopter. These ancient men, without the technology and ease of life we have today, were able to 
produce some of the most prolific additions to human knowledge ever. 
Now let us examine some men from our time. Bill Gates, while adding immensely to the pleasures and 
ease of man’s life, did so only by forcefully destroying many fledgling companies and completely 
undermining our capitalistic market place. Very very few men in our time are leaders in more than one 
discipline. There are no scientists/artists or writer/mathamaticians. Men, while being able to more 
deeply delve into a discipline, are now restricted to it. I attribute this to technology. We now have a life 
outside of our work. A life with computers, cars, movies, and dinner with the family from across the 
country. Mankind can no longer devote himself to his work. He has his work life, and his home life. 
While a cell phone allows me to talk to anyone from anywhere, it prevents me from being alone and 
fully concentrating. While the internet allows me to look at websites from around the world, it prevents 
me from doing the work I set out to do. 
While technology and science have made man’s life easier, they have not made it better. Man has 
become less productive and less devoted, partly, as a result of this newfound ease of life. Therefore, 
What makes our lives easier does not necessarily make them better. 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. "Predictable" means forseeable or hackneyed. If one were to insert this term into 
the text, the sentence would read "To avoid being predictable, composer Stephen Sondheim strives for 
an element of surprise in his songs." The word "avoid" indicates that the missing term will contrast with 
the element of surprise that Sondheim tries to instill in his songs. "Surprise" means something 
unexpected, so it makes sense to say that the composer includes surprising elements in his songs to 
ensure that his work sounds fresh and original. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Erratic" means inconsistent. If one were to insert this term into the text, the 
sentence would read "To avoid being erratic, composer Stephen Sondheim strives for an element of 
surprise in his songs." It can be argued that inconsistencies within in a song are "surprising." This term 
therefore defies the underlying logic of the sentence that the meaning of the missing word must contrast 
with the meaning of "surprise." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Informal" means casual. If one were to insert this term into the text, the 
sentence would read "To avoid being informal, composer Stephen Sondheim strives for an element of 

surprise in his songs." There is, however, no direct correlation between a composer's informality and his 
or her originality. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Elaborate" in this context means complex. If one were to insert this term into 
the text, the sentence would read "To avoid being elaborate, composer Stephen Sondheim strives for an 
element of surprise in his songs." But songs that lack complexity are not necessarily surprising. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Idiosyncratic" in this context means peculiar. If one were to insert this term into 
the text, the sentence would read "To avoid being idiosyncratic, composer Stephen Sondheim strives for 
an element of surprise in his songs." It is illogical to claim that a composer who values originality would 
want to avoid being unusual. Idiosyncrasies, or departures from the norm, are often what make music 
surprising. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. "Catastrophic" means involving a disastrous or tragic event. The first half of the 
sentence, beginning with the word "because" and ending with a comma, sets up an explanation for the 
pandas' vulnerability. The second half of the sentence elaborates on the consequences that a harsh 
winter would have had on a struggling population. If one were to insert the term "catastrophic" into the 
text, the sentence would read "Because the pandas had already been weakened by disease and drought, 
a harsh winter would have had catastrophic consequences for them." The term "catastrophic" supports 
the fact that a difficult winter would be distastrous for a group of pandas that is already suffering from 
disease and drought. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Preventive" means intended to prevent or protect. If one were to insert this 
term into the text, the sentence would read "Because the pandas had already been weakened by disease 
and drought, a harsh winter would have had preventive consequences for them." The term "preventive" 
therefore suggests that a harsh winter would have protected the pandas when, in fact, the opposite is
true. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Regressive" means tending to return or revert. If one were to insert this term 
into the text, the sentence would read "Because the pandas had already been weakened by disease and 
drought, a harsh winter would have had regressive consequences for them." Although the term 
"regressive" carries negative connotations that seem appropriate in this context, environmental 
hardships would not have necessarily caused a population to revert to earlier behaviors. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Unforeseen" means unexpected. If one were to insert this term into the text, 
the sentence would read "Because the pandas had already been weakened by disease and drought, a 
harsh winter would have had unforeseen consequences for them." Since the pandas are already 
weakened, the consequences of the harsh winter are easy to predict, so they can’t be described as 
unforeseen. 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Moderate" means not excessive or extreme. If one were to insert this term into 
the text, the sentence would read "Because the pandas had already been weakened by disease and 
drought, a harsh winter would have had moderate consequences for them." This sentence is illogical 
because a harsh winter would have had severe, rather than moderate, consequences for a group of 
"weakened" pandas. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. "Arrangement" in this context means an agreement or settlement, and "devoid" 
means completely lacking. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "For 
many of the villagers, marriage was a practical arrangement, one not necessarily devoid of love but 
nevertheless grounded largely in economic advantage." The villagers in this sentence view marriage 
pragmatically rather than romantically. For them, marriage more closely resembles a business 
arrangement than a loving union. The word "nevertheless" indicates that marriage does not always lack 
love but that "economic advantage" is a higher priority. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Entertainment" means a diversion or amusement. "Disparaging" means 
disrespectful or degrading. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "For 
many of the villagers, marriage was a practical entertainment, one not necessarily disparaging of love 
but nevertheless grounded largely in economic advantage." Diversions are more likely to be considered 
frivolous than "practical." Also, it is illogical to say that "entertainment" can disrespect love. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Attitude" in this context means feeling or state of mind. "Consisting" means
made up of. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "For many of the
villagers, marriage was a practical attitude, one not necessarily consisting of love but nevertheless 
grounded largely in economic advantage." The main fault in the logic of this sentence comes from the 
fact that marriage is an official institution, not a state of mind. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Bargain" means an agreement between parties carrying obligations that each 
promises to carry out. "Worthy" means deserving. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the 
sentence would read "For many of the villagers, marriage was a practical bargain, one not necessarily 
worthy of love but nevertheless grounded largely in economic advantage." The villagers might 
reasonably consider a marriage based on "economic advantage" as a "bargain." Calling the bargain 
"worthy of love," however, does not explain the comparison of love and economics that is set up in the 
structure of the sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Misfortune" in this context means the condition resulting from ill luck. "Trusting" 
means reliant on the integrity, ability, or character of a person or thing. If one were to insert these terms 
into the text, the sentence would read "For many of the villagers, marriage was a practical misfortune, 
one not necessarily trusting of love but nevertheless grounded largely in economic advantage." This 
sentence fails to explain how economically advantageous marriage constitutes a "practical," unlucky 
condition. Furthermore, a misfortune cannot be referred to as "trusting." 



ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. "Temporize" means to act evasively to gain time or to postpone a decision. 
"Prolong" means to lengthen in duration. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence 
would read "Maggie is a procrastinator, naturally inclined to temporize and to prolong discussions." The 
part of the sentence after the comma describes what a procrastinator, a person who puts off doing 
something, might do. It makes sense to label a person who tries to gain time by prolonging 
conversations a procrastinator. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Meddle" means to intrude into other people's affairs. "Scoff" means to mock or 
show disrespect. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "Maggie is a
procrastinator, naturally inclined to meddle and to scoff at discussions." A person who puts things off is 
not necessarily likely either to meddle or to scoff. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Misbehave" means to behave badly, and "disrupt" in this context means to 
interrupt. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "Maggie is a 
procrastinator, naturally inclined to misbehave and to disrupt discussions." A person who misbehaves 
might disrupt discussions, but such behavior doesn't confirm that a person is a procrastinator. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Sneer" means to assume a scornful facial expression. "Terminate" means to 
bring to an end. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "Maggie is a
procrastinator, naturally inclined to sneer and to terminate discussions." One who sneers, or looks 
scornful, isn’t necessarily a procrastinator. Furthermore, a person who halts discussions is one who acts 
rather than stalls for time, as a procrastinator does. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Withdraw" in this context means to become detached from social involvement. 
"Intrude" means to enter rudely or inappropriately. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the 
sentence would read "Maggie is a procrastinator, naturally inclined to withdraw and to intrude in 
discussions." This sentence is illogical on several levels. Someone who is inclined to withdraw from 
social situations is not likely to rudely interrupt discussions. In addition, a person's willingness or 
unwillingness to participate in discussions with others is not relevent to the act of procrastination. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. "Admit" means to let in, and "contain" means to keep in. If one were to insert these 
terms into the text, the sentence would read "Just as glass windows offer buildings both light and 
insulation, certain atmospheric gases admit incoming sunlight and contain heat radiated from the 
ground, preventing warmth from escaping." The phrase “Just as” indicates that the sentence draws a 
parallel between glass windows that provide light and insulation and certain gases that have the same 
effect. There are gases that, like windows, let sunlight pass through while trapping the heat. 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Conduct" means to spread, and "release" means to let go. If one were to insert 
these terms into the text, the sentence would read "Just as glass windows offer buildings both light and 
insulation, certain atmospheric gases conduct incoming sunlight and release heat radiated from the 
ground, preventing warmth from escaping." Gases that release heat serve the opposite purpose of 
windows, which trap heat. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Deflect" means to turn something away, and "transmit" means to send one 
thing to another. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "Just as glass 
windows offer buildings both light and insulation, certain atmospheric gases deflect incoming sunlight 
and transmit heat radiated from the ground, preventing warmth from escaping." Atmospheric gases 
that would turn away sunlight and transmit heat would provide neither light nor insulation. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Absorb" means to take in or use up, and "dispense" means to distribute. If one 
were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "Just as glass windows offer buildings 
both light and insulation, certain atmospheric gases absorb incoming sunlight and dispense heat
radiated from the ground, preventing warmth from escaping." Atmospheric gases that absorb sunlight
would not provide light, as windows do. In addition, windows contain heat; they do not distribute it. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Resist" means to fend off or withstand. "Trap" means to catch. If one were to
insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "Just as glass windows offer buildings both 
light and insulation, certain atmospheric gases resist incoming sunlight and trap heat radiated from the 
ground, preventing warmth from escaping." Though gases that trap heat prevent warmth from escaping, 
gases that resist incoming sunlight would not increase the amount of light available. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. "Rhetoric" means the art of using language effectively and persuasively. 
"Substance" means important content. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence 
would read "The speaker, praised for her style yet ridiculed for her vacuity, often moved naive listeners 
with rhetoric alone and led them to believe that her speech had substance." The first part of the 
sentence implies that the speaker is convincing, yet shallow. The terms "rhetoric" and "substance" 
reinforce this description in the second part of the sentence, which asserts that unsophisticated listeners 
mistake the speaker's eloquence for content. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Reason" means logical sense, and "dalliance" in this context means playful 
flirtation. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "The speaker, praised 
for her style yet ridiculed for her vacuity, often moved naive listeners with reason alone and led them to 
believe that her speech had dalliance." To say that she "moved" naive audience members implies a 
connection based on emotion, not "reason." Furthermore, it is illogical to say that her speech had 
flirtatious "dalliance." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 

Choice (B) is incorrect. "Infelicity" means inappropriateness of expression, and "conviction" means 
certainty. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "The speaker, praised 
for her style yet ridiculed for her vacuity, often moved naive listeners with infelicity alone and led them 
to believe that her speech had conviction." It is highly unlikely that inappropriateness would "move" an 
audience or that it would give a speech an air of "conviction." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Pragmatism" means a practical approach to problems, and "futility" means 
uselessness. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "The speaker, 
praised for her style yet ridiculed for her vacuity, often moved naive listeners with pragmatism alone
and led them to believe that her speech had futility." Although pragmatism might influence listeners, it 
would not likely "move" them. Also, it is illogical to claim that the speaker's pragmatic presentation 
would convince people "that her speech had futility." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Boorishness" means rudeness. "Integrity" means adherence to a strict moral 
code. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "The speaker, praised for 
her style yet ridiculed for her vacuity, often moved naive listeners with boorishness alone and led them 
to believe that her speech had integrity." "Boorishness," or rude insensitivity, would hardly lead 
audience members to believe that a speech had integrity. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. "Petulant" means unreasonably ill-tempered. If one were to insert this term into 
the text, the sentence would read "The actor was noted for his petulant behavior: he quickly became
irritated if his every whim was not immediately satisfied." The colon in the sentence sets up an example 
of the actor's behavior. The assertion that the actor was ill-tempered is supported by the fact that he 
became annoyed when people did not cater to his "every whim." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Fastidious" in this context means meticulous. If one were to insert this term into 
the text, the sentence would read "The actor was noted for his fastidious behavior: he quickly became 
irritated if his every whim was not immediately satisfied." A fastidious person has high standards but is 
more concerned with quality than speed. The actor might pay meticulous attention to details, but this 
trait does not explain the irritation he feels when his desires are not "immediately satisfied." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Sedulous" means constant in effort or busy. If one were to insert this term into 
the text, the sentence would read "The actor was noted for his sedulous behavior: he quickly became 
irritated if his every whim was not immediately satisfied." The sentence says nothing to imply that the 
actor is hard-working or busy. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Vindictive" means spiteful or vengeful. If one were to insert this term into the 
text, the sentence would read "The actor was noted for his vindictive behavior: he quickly became 
irritated if his every whim was not immediately satisfied." There is nothing in the sentence to suggest 
that the actor, though difficult, was spiteful or prone to revenge. 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Mercenary" means motivated solely by a desire for monetary or material gain. 
If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read "The actor was noted for his 
mercenary behavior: he quickly became irritated if his every whim was not immediately satisfied." A 
person motivated by greed does not necessarily become quickly irritated. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. "Treacly" means overly sweet or sentimental. If one were to insert "treacly" into 
the text, the sentence would read "Hayley Mills’s films have been called treacly, although most of them 
are not so sentimental as to deserve that description." The word "although" indicates that an opposition 
exists between the two clauses. The sentence argues that Hayley Mills's films are "not so sentimental," 
which means that the missing term must be synonymous with "that description." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Cursory" means hasty. If one were to insert "cursory" into the text, the 
sentence would read "Hayley Mills’s films have been called cursory, although most of them are not so 
sentimental as to deserve that description." A film that is "cursory" has been produced quickly and with 
little regard for details. But the speed with which a film is produced says nothing about the nature of its 
content. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Prosaic" means straightforward or lacking in imagination. If one were to insert 
"prosaic" into the text, the sentence would read "Hayley Mills’s films have been called prosaic, although 
most of them are not so sentimental as to deserve that description." A film that is prosaic lacks 
imagination, but it isn't necessarily "sentimental." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Meticulous" means extremely concerned with details. If one were to insert 
"meticulous" into the text, the sentence would read "Hayley Mills’s films have been called meticulous, 
although most of them are not so sentimental as to deserve that description." A film that pays 
"meticulous" attention to details may or may not be overly sentimental. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Consecrated" means declared sacred. If one were to insert "consecrated" into 
the text, the sentence would read "Hayley Mills’s films have been called consecrated, although most of 
them are not so sentimental as to deserve that description." "Consecrated" does not fit logically into this 
sentence because it is not synonymous with "sentimental." 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. According to lines 4–8, Balzac's insensitive and awkward behavior sharply 
contrasted with the penetrating intuition found in his novels. 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. Many women appreciated Balzac's novels for their accurate depictions of the 
female psyche. It was Balzac's personality that proved to be less popular with women. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. Although the first sentence in the passage discusses Balzac’s ability to write 
about financial matters, lines 4–8 provide an example of the “other matters” in which Balzac’s writing 
did not reflect his life. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. The example indicates that female readers were disappointed with Balzac as a
person, but there is no evidence that this disappointment destroyed their respect for Balzac as an artist. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Since Balzac had shown “penetrating intuition of the female heart” in his novels, 
it was reasonable for his readers to expect that he would have some understanding of real women. 
10 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. The passage indicates that a young Balzac discovered the power of imagination 
while locked in his boarding school's closet. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. No connection is made in the passage between Balzac’s boarding school 
experience and his inability to manage money. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. There is no indication in the passage that Balzac’s performance at the boarding 
school was lackluster, or mediocre. Furthermore, the author makes no attempt to exonerate the school, 
or free it from blame, in any way. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. Balzac's imprisonment in the boarding school closet may have been a 
punishment for "unruliness," but the incident provides a significant insight into his imagination, not his 
behavior. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Although the description of Balzac’s experience does suggest something about 
the conditions of boarding school life, those conditions are not relevant to the issues discussed in the 
passage. 
11 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 

Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. Louis Wright's success as a surgeon placed additional pressure on his daughter 
Jane as she tried to forge her own career in medicine. Jane Wright says in lines 6–7, “His being so good 
really makes it very difficult.” It can be inferred that Jane Wright’s difficulty resulted from being 
compared to her father. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. Louis Wright warned his daughter that it would be difficult to become a doctor, 
but the passage does not say that he tried to discourage her from studying medicine. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. Although the passage indicates that Louis Wright was well-known, it does not 
suggest that he flaunted, or boasted about, his success. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. There is no information in the passage about how much time Jane Wright spent 
studying. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect, since the passage does not suggest that either Jane Wright or Louis Wright 
wished to be famous. 
12 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. The passage mostly reflects on the ways in which Jane Wright’s father influenced 
her career as a doctor. Louis Wright was a prominent surgeon himself, and his fame brought unwelcome 
comparisons with his daughter. Furthermore, his cautionary advice influenced her perceptions of a 
career in medicine. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. In the passage, Jane Wright talks about her father, who is a doctor, but she does 
not discuss her ideas about the medical profession in general. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The passage is about Jane Wright’s reflections on becoming a doctor. Her 
childhood is not specifically mentioned. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. There is nothing in the passage to suggest that Jane Wright would not have 
wanted to collaborate, or work, with her father. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 

Choice (E) is incorrect. The passage does not indicate that Jane Wright’s father encouraged her or that 
she was necessarily grateful to him. 
13 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. According to the passage, a Victorian middle-class woman had to choose between 
being a respected member of the community and working for a living. Lines 18–21 indicate that women 
who worked faced the disapproval of society and risked diminishing their "self-worth." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The role of women in the workplace shifted dramatically between the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries, but lines 18–21 make no reference to this "evolution." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Economic exertions" did not lead Victorian women to "success," but to 
ostracism. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. The "shame" that plagued working women likely made them less attractive 
candidates for marriage. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Lines 18–21 clearly indicate that societal pressures made it difficult for women 
to achieve self-worth through work. 
14 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. "Occupation" in this context refers to a "vocation," or suitable work. If one were to 
insert this definition into line 24, the sentence would read: "Thus, at a time when vocation was becoming 
a core element in masculine identity, any position for middle-class women other than in relation to men 
was considered anomalous." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. In a military context, "occupation" refers to the control of a nation by foreign 
forces. The passage does not mention the military at all, however, so this definition is inappropriate. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Occupation" can mean a hobby or diversion, but this passage clearly refers to 
the working world and not to leisure activities. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 

Choice (D) is incorrect. "Occupation" sometimes means the act of possessing a place, but this definition 
does not logically fit into line 24. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. While it may be inferred that Victorian women were victims of political as well as 
social repression, "occupation" does not logically signify any sort of repression within the context of line 
24. 
15 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. According to Passage 1, a "fifth class" was created in the nineteenth century to 
describe the large numbers of middle-class women who did not work outside the home. The existence 
of such a class contrasts sharply with the social climate of the seventeenth century, when women played 
a significant role in family businesses, as evidenced by the trade tokens that carried their initials. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. Passage 1 does not address whether trade tokens qualified as legal currency. 
Regardless, the monetary value of these tokens is irrelevant in a discussion of the societal status of 
working women. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. Although trade tokens may have been issued to women of different classes, the 
author considers the initials on the tokens and not the tokens themselves to be evidence of prevailing
attitudes of the seventeenth century. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The author of Passage 1 does not indicate that the trade tokens had any effect 
on gender stereotypes. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. Women were indeed identified on seventeenth-century trade tokens. It was their 
disappearance from later tokens that reflected the creation of the "fifth class" described in Passage 1.
16 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct . Queen Victoria does not reflect the "diminished social status" of Victorian women. 
Rather, she appears in the passage as a marked exception to the rule. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. Passage 1 makes several allusions to the disparity that existed in the workplace 
between Victorian men and women, asserting that "inequality in the working world made it exceedingly 
difficult for a middle-class woman to support herself." 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. Passage 1 specifically refers to the opprobrium, or shame, that a working woman 
might bring upon herself and her family. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. Passage 1 mentions that by the end of the eighteenth century, women's initials 
were no longer retained on family trade tokens. This detail indicates that women were no longer 
regarded as significant contributors to family businesses. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Passage 1 asserts that the absence of women's financial documents from the 
nineteenth century illustrates the degree to which they disappeared from business affairs. 
17 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. Lines 42–46 illustrate the author's assertion that women's roles in business affairs 
decreased significantly around the turn of the nineteenth century. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. While it may be true that a seventeenth-century woman worker's status was 
enhanced by her responsibilities, these lines are concerned with only women of the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. Lines 42–46 are concerned with women's declining role in family business. The 
proliferation of female novelists is not mentioned. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. Although the passage acknowledges that "millions of working-class women 
worked for wages in factories," lines 42–46 refer to only the business lives of middle-class women. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Formal academic institutions may not have admitted women in the seventeenth 
century, but this claim does not support the view that workplace opportunities for women decreased
between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 
18 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. "Hail" in this context means to welcome, or to greet. Line 80 comes from 
Davenport Adams's assertion that it is natural that a woman who is "fettered," or repressed, by Victorian 
society should welcome the emancipation, or freedom, that travel can provide. 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. It is illogical to say that women should "call out to" a concept, such as 
emancipation. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. This definition of "hail" is inappropriate, given the context of line 80. Freedom 
cannot be "hailed" with a physical gesture. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. It does not make sense to say that Victorian women "should come from" freedom 
when, in fact, they are not free at home. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Hail" does not mean to summon, or to call for, in this context. 
19 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. The passage indicates that Kingsley's attitude toward women's rights campaigns 
was one of distaste, despite the fact that her travels identified her as a liberated, "new woman." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. Kingsley was a traveler, not an activist. According to the passage, Kingsley was 
"chagrined" to learn that she had become a symbol of "the new social and political freedom and prowess 
of women." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. While Kingsley may have felt a degree of antagonism toward those who 
pressured her to become a spokeswoman for a movement that she did not identify with, there is nothing 
to suggest that dedication to another cause prompted the hostility. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. There may be an implicit inconsistency in the fact that Kingsley, as a woman, did 
not empathize with the campaign for gender equity. Passage 2 never discusses, however, the role that 
British citizenship may have played in defining her female identity. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. Kingsley's attitude of distaste toward women's rights campaigns suggests that 
she was either uninterested in the movement or was simply opposed to women's struggle for freedom. 
The passage does not mention other groups. 
20 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 

Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. Passage 2 indicates that women traveled for scientific research, which qualifies as 
an educational pursuit, and missionary work, which is a humanitarian activity. The passage does not 
indicate that women traveled for business reasons.
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. This option neglects the fact that women also traveled for humanitarian 
purposes. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The passage says nothing to suggest that women traveled to pursue 
business-related interests. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. According to Passage 2, women often traveled as missionaries. There is nothing 
in the text to suggest that their trips were business-related, however. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Passage 2 specifies that British women traveled for educational reasons, but it 
says nothing about their entrepreneurial pursuits. 
21 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. Passage 2 is solely concerned with middle-class women who escape through travel 
the "restraints, obligations, and responsibilities" of Victorian England. Their reasons for travel include 
"scientific research," so the middle-class woman who went to Greece and Egypt to study ancient ruins 
exemplifies the subject of this passage. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. Passage 2 describes the "autonomy" that middle-class women find in their 
travels; an aristocrat living abroad with her father is neither middle-class nor independent. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. Passage 2 mentions women who travel alone as missionaries to "escape 
domestic confinement," but a woman who relocates abroad with her husband is neither traveling alone 
nor escaping her housebound duties. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. A nursemaid is dependent on her employers and therefore falls outside the scope 
of Passage 2's argument, which centers on middle-class women traveling to achieve independence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 

Choice (E) is incorrect. A girl from a poor family who is sent abroad to work is neither middle-class nor 
an independent traveler. 
22 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. The "fifth class" described in Passage 1 consists of women confined to household 
activities. Passage 2 refers to these housebound women as "caged birds." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. Female missionaries who worked outside the home and out of England would 
certainly not have qualified as members of the "fifth class." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The "new woman" described in Passage 2 traveled and, therefore, was not bound 
by the household duties that defined the "fifth class." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. Middleton is quoted as an author, and Kingsley was an independent traveler;
neither is representative of the Victorian "fifth class." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Fussell's and Adams's first names indicate that they are both men, and are thus 
disqualified from membership in the "fifth class," which is "exclusively made up of women." 
23 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. The tone of both passages can be described as objective and unemotional. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. Passages 1 and 2 do not convey a sense of nostalgia, or yearning for the past, 
in any way. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. Neither passage expresses the personal feelings, regretful or otherwise, of its 
author. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. Although Passage 1 discusses the inequality that Victorian women faced, the 
author remains objective. Additionally, neither passage expresses righteous indignation, or justified 
anger. 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. There is not a trace of hostility in the tone of either passage. 
24 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. According to Passage 2, "travel was an individual gesture of the housebound, 
man-dominated Victorian woman." Passage 1 directly supports this image in its assertion that 
middle-class women of the ninetheenth century "were usually assigned domestic roles and faced 
severely limited professional career options." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. Neither passage suggests that Victorian women traveled for entrepreneurial 
purposes. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. Passage 2 concerns women who traveled alone. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. Nothing in Passage 1 suggests that women of other classes admired the 
middle-class women described in Passage 2. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Although Passage 2 mentions women's rights campaigns, Passage 1 does not 
address middle-class women who sought social reform. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. "Adept" means skillful. If one were to insert "adept at" into the text, the sentence
would read "Predictably, detail-oriented workers are adept at keeping track of the myriad particulars of 
a situation." The word "predictably" indicates that the sentence will describe behavior that is common
among detail-oriented workers. This type of employee is certainly expected to be adept at managing 
numerous particulars, or details. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Remiss" means careless. If one were to insert "remiss in" into the text, the 
sentence would read "Predictably, detail-oriented workers are remiss in keeping track of the myriad 
particulars of a situation." By definition, detail-oriented workers do not handle details carelessly. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Humorous" means funny. If one were to insert "humorous about" into the text, 
the sentence would read "Predictably, detail-oriented workers are humorous about keeping track of the 

myriad particulars of a situation." Although detail-oriented workers may find humor in their tasks, they 
cannot be expected to do so. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Hesitant" means inclined to act with uncertainty. If one were to insert "hesitant 
about" into the text, the sentence would read "Predictably, detail-oriented workers are hesitant about 
keeping track of the myriad particulars of a situation." If people are generally detail-oriented by nature, 
it illogical to assert that they handle details with uncertainty. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Contemptuous" means scornful. If one were to insert "contemptuous of" into 
the text, the sentence would read "Predictably, detail-oriented workers are contemptuous of keeping 
track of the myriad particulars of a situation." While certain detail-oriented workers may intensely 
dislike their job requirements, it is incorrect to claim that they all do. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. "Uprising" means a revolt against a government or its policies. "Quell" means to 
put down or suppress. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "The 
controversial tax fueled a sustained uprising that could not be quelled by the Prime Minister’s 
impassioned speeches." The phrase "could not be" indicates that the impassioned speeches were 
intended to create the opposite effect of the one created by the tax. The missing terms explain that the 
Prime Minister's efforts failed to convince citizens that the unpopular tax was justified. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Rebellion" means organized resistance to a government, and "challenged" 
means confronted or called into question. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence 
would read "The controversial tax fueled a sustained rebellion that could not be challenged by the Prime 
Minister’s impassioned speeches." The tax might indeed provoke a rebellion, but it is very likely that the 
Prime Minister's speeches challenged, or attempted to challenge, the popular resistance. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Interrogation" means a formal examination by questioning. "Fortified" means 
strengthened or reinforced. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "The 
controversial tax fueled a sustained interrogation that could not be fortified by the Prime Minister’s 
impassioned speeches." It is not likely that a tax would have stimulated an interrogation. In the event 
that an interrogation did take place, however, it is reasonable to consider that fiery speeches might have 
strengthened the examination. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Conflagration" means a large fire, and "fostered" means nurtured or cultivated. 
If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "The controversial tax fueled a 
sustained conflagration that could not be fostered by the Prime Minister’s impassioned speeches." An
actual fire could not be physically lit by an unpopular tax. Even if the word is used to figuratively describe 
how the tax ignited citizens' passions, it is illogical to say that an already impassioned response could 
not be fostered by impassioned speeches. Furthermore, it is not likely that a government leader would 
want to encourage protest against a government-issued tax. 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Denial" in this context means a refusal to accept or believe something. 
"Restrained" means held back or controlled. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence 
would read "The controversial tax fueled a sustained denial that could not be restrained by the Prime 
Minister’s impassioned speeches." Although these speeches were intended to restrain the negative 
reaction to the unwelcome tax, "denial" is not the best term to describe such a reaction. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. "Deleterious" means harmful. If one were to insert this term into the text, the 
sentence would read "Inbreeding can promote the expression of deleterious genes, those that make an 
animal subject to disease or impair reproductive efficiency." The clause following the comma provides a 
specific definition for the missing term, which modifies "genes." Genes that weaken an animal's immune 
and reproductive systems are indeed "deleterious." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Ineffable" means indescribable. If one were to insert this term into the text, the 
sentence would read "Inbreeding can promote the expression of ineffable genes, those that make an 
animal subject to disease or impair reproductive efficiency." These genes cannot be called ineffable 
since they are described in the second clause. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Articulated" in this context means united or joined. If one were to insert this 
term into the text, the sentence would read "Inbreeding can promote the expression of articulated 
genes, those that make an animal subject to disease or impair reproductive efficiency." "Articulated" is 
a neutral adjective used to describe the structure of something. The missing term should instead reflect 
the destructive nature of the gene described in the second clause. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Consummate" means complete or perfect. If one were to insert this term into 
the text, the sentence would read "Inbreeding can promote the expression of consummate genes, those 
that make an animal subject to disease or impair reproductive efficiency." A gene that promotes disease 
and infertility can hardly be called complete or perfect. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Presumptive" means founded on probability. If one were to insert this term into 
the text, the sentence would read "Inbreeding can promote the expression of presumptive genes, those 
that make an animal subject to disease or impair reproductive efficiency." It is illogical to say that the
genes are presumptive. Probability has nothing to do with the harmful effects of the genes mentioned in 
the sentence. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer A : 

Choice (A) is correct. "Vacillated" means to swing indecisively from one opinion to another. 
"Inconsistency" means unpredictability or illogic. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the 
sentence would read "The doctor vacillated so frequently on disease-prevention techniques that his 
colleagues accused him of inconsistency." The first missing term describes the doctor’s behavior; the 
second is a characteristic of a person who behaves in this way. Because the doctor vacillated, or 
changed his mind frequently, his colleagues were right to accuse him of being inconsistent. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Sermonized" means spoke as though delivering a sermon. "Fidelity" means 
faithfulness to obligations or duties. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would
read "The doctor sermonized so frequently on disease-prevention techniques that his colleagues 
accused him of fidelity." It is fair to say that a doctor who sermonizes frequently about medical issues 
is faithful to his profession, but it does not make sense to say that his colleagues accused him of 
exhibiting a positive trait. Accusations are generally reserved for negative qualities. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Wavered" means moved unsteadily back and forth. "Steadfastness" means 
steadiness or constancy. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "The 
doctor wavered so frequently on disease-prevention techniques that his colleagues accused him of 
steadfastness." Since these two terms have opposite meanings, one who frequently wavers would not 
be called steadfast. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. Experimented" means tried something new to gain experience. "Inflexibility" 
means rigidity. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "The doctor 
experimented so frequently on disease-prevention techniques that his colleagues accused him of 
inflexibility." But a person known for trying new techniques could not be accused of avoiding change. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Rely" in this context means to be dependent on something, and "negligence" 
means failure to provide reasonable care. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence 
would read "The doctor relied so frequently on disease-prevention techniques that his colleagues 
accused him of negligence." The fact that the doctor relied on disease-prevention techniques does not 
necessarily mean that he failed to properly care for his patients. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. "Equitable" means fair and impartial. "Eulogy" in this context means high praise. 
The first part of the sentence describes a biography that is judicious, or fair; the part of the sentence 
after the comma further explains that description, naming two extremes that a fair biography avoids. If 
one were to insert the terms "equitable" and "eulogy" into the text, the sentence would read "A judicious 
biography must be an equitable representation that depicts both the strengths and the weaknesses of 
the subject, avoiding the two extremes of eulogy and indictment." This sentence is logical, because a 
biography that represents a balance between high praise and indictment, or harsh criticism, is indeed 
judicious and equitable. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 

Choice (A) is incorrect. "Polarized" means concentrated on two conflicting or contrasting opinions. 
"Vindication" means the clearing of blame. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence 
would read "A judicious biography must be a polarized representation that depicts both the strengths 
and the weaknesses of the subject, avoiding the two extremes of vindication and indictment." A 
biography that is polarized, however, presents extreme views and thus is not judicious. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Imaginative" means creative or fanciful, and "discernment" means the 
keenness of insight. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "A judicious 
biography must be an imaginative representation that depicts both the strengths and the weaknesses of 
the subject, avoiding the two extremes of discernment and indictment." Neither term is appropriate in 
this sentence. A judicious biography is based on fact, not imagination. Also, discernment is not the 
extreme opposite of indictment, or harsh criticism. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Holistic" means concerned with wholes, rather than parts. "Censure" means 
harsh criticism. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "A judicious 
biography must be a holistic representation that depicts both the strengths and the weaknesses of the 
subject, avoiding the two extremes of censure and indictment." A representation that is holistic could be 
judicious, but "censure" is a synonym of "indictment," not an antonym. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Complimentary" means expressing praise, and "animosity" means bitter 
hostility. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "A judicious biography 
must be a complimentary representation that depicts both the strengths and the weaknesses of the 
subject, avoiding the two extremes of animosity and indictment." A fair biography does not necessarily 
portray a person favorably, as it must represent both the strengths and weaknesses of the subject. In 
addition, animosity is not the opposite of indictment. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. Passage 1 focuses on the harsh working conditions that generally characterize 
family farms. According to this passage, many farmers work brutal hours without vacation time or 
proper benefits. Passage 2 mentions farmers' "great discomfort" but does not elaborate on their actual 
working conditions. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. While Passage 2 addresses Americans’ distance from "the ethics and morals of 
food production," Passage 1 does not. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. Although the author of Passage 1 includes McKigney’s statement that farmers 
endure a grueling schedule without the benefits demanded by most labor unions, neither McKigney nor 
the author of Passage 1 mentions a need for farmers to unionize. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 

Choice (D) is incorrect. Passage 1 does not mention the quantity or variety of food available in the 
United States. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Passage 2 discusses Americans’ misconceptions about farm life, but Passage 1 
does not. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. The authors of both passages call attention to the struggles of American farm 
families. Passage 1 presents a stark picture of their difficult working conditions, which nonfarmers may 
not be familiar with. The author of Passage 2 contends that Americans who maintain a "nostalgic" and 
unrealistic impression of the superior farming lifestyle are taking farmers' "great discomfort" for 
granted. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. Although Passage 2 mentions a poll, neither passage suggests that anyone 
should not rely on polls for accurate information. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The author of Passage 1 indicates that "a dairy farmer…cannot just take off for 
a two-week vacation" but does not address farmers’ desire for such vacations. The author of Passage 2 
makes no mention of vacations. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. Although Passage 2 implies that the low price of food may contribute to farmers' 
"great discomfort," Passage 1 does not mention economics. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Neither author discusses home-grown produce. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS <
br /> Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. According to the author of Passage 1, farm life is defined by hard work and long 
hours, not by better values or general superiority. The author of Passage 1 would likely believe that the 
majority of Americans who hold onto nostalgic views are ignorant concerning the realities of family 
farming. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. The author of Passage 1 portrays farm work as physically demanding and 
relentless, but neither passage says anything about boredom. 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. While the majority of Americans may admire the strong work ethic of family 
farmers, Passage 2 does not discuss how the general public views farm efficiency. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. It is illogical to claim that the author of Passage 1 would expect the majority of 
Americans to "improve the arduous life" of farmers. According to Passage 2, Americans are generally 
unaware of the arduous nature of farming. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Neither author mentions food production research. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. The author of Passage 1 quotes Darrell McKigney, a farm alumnus whose 
background qualifies him to comment about the price of family farm efficiency. Passage 2 mentions a 
newspaper poll but does not quote it. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. Although the author of Passage 1 quotes a psychologist who may have studied 
farm families, neither passage explains a study. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The author of Passage 1 presents problems of family farmers, while the author 
of Passage 2 calls attention to the discrepancy between Americans’ views of farms and the reality of 
family farmers as “dupes.” Neither author offers a solution. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The author of Passage 1 describes the demands of life for family farmers. The 
author of Passage 2 makes observations about Americans’ views of family farms and raises questions 
about the fate and circumstances of such farms. In that sense, both authors argue positions. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. Passage 1 discusses the difficulty of farm work; Passage 2 discusses nonfarming 
Americans' nostalgic ideas about family farms. In that sense both passages discuss phenomena. 
10 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. Waverly describes June's advertisement with mocking disdain. Her condescending 
remarks and melodramatic recitation of the advertisement are meant to imply that June's work is 

amateurish. Waverly emphasizes the ad's repetition of “three” to suggest that such repetition is 
overdone. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. Waverly recites the advertisement in a "deep television-announcer voice" that 
might be described as serious, or even somber. The text of the ad, however, is not convoluted. If 
anything, Waverly seems to think that June's work is simplistic. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. It is fair to say that June’s advertisement is clear and concise, but such a 
description would be complimentary. Waverly's characterization of the ad is entirely negative. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. Waverly's criticsm of June's advertisement is an attack disguised as a joke. 
Waverly does not laugh "in a lighthearted way" because she thinks June's work is humorous but because 
the laughter allows Waverly to sneak insults into a social setting. Furthermore, Waverly implies that the 
ad is too blunt and obvious to be effective. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Nothing in the passage indicates that Waverly finds June's work clever, and the 
ad only seems lively when Waverly recites in a mocking tone. 
11 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. At the dinner party June was forced to contend with Waverly's aggression and her 
own mother's insensitivity. The matter-of-fact conclusion that Waverly had outsmarted her "once again" 
suggests that June expects such behavior from her friend. It was her mother's "betrayal" that caught 
June off guard, leaving her hurt and vulnerable. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. June may have been frustrated that she let Waverly get the better of her, but 
exasperation, or frustration, has nothing to do with June being surprised by the depth of her humiliation. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. June may dislike being publicly humiliated, but she does not exhibit any 
animosity toward her friend or her mother. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. Although June may not have expected her mother to agree with her friend's 
criticism, the passage does not indicate that June was surprised to realize that her mother admires 
Waverly. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 

Choice (E) is incorrect. June says her mother's betrayal is humiliating, but she does not express any 
resentment toward her in this passage. 
12 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. The phrase “once again” clearly indicates that June is no stranger to Waverly's sly 
criticism. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. While June may be used to Waverly's criticism, this line does not directly indicate 
that she anticipated Waverly's insults at the dinner party. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. It is plausible that June might like to reverse roles with Waverly, but this line 
does not indicate that June had planned to humiliate Waverly at the dinner party. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. June is “outsmarted by Waverly” and “betrayed by” her mother simultaneously, 
but there is no reason to believe that Waverly and June’s mother acted in concert. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. The passage offers no evidence that Waverly is a writer. 
13 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. June is deeply humiliated at the dinner party when her mother publicly agrees with 
Waverly's criticism. “June is not sophisticated like you,” June’s mother tells Waverly in front of the 
guests. This betrayal seems to have particular significance for June as she later grapples with her
mother's death. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. June's mother agrees with Waverly's assertion that June lacks sophistication, but 
the passage does not address whether June's mother made Waverly feel welcome. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. June’s mother only criticizes June’s lack of style. Furthermore, there is no 
indication that Waverly and June have an argument at any point in the passage. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. Though one might expect June's mother to become upset with Waverly for 
insulting her daughter, June's mother instead agrees with Waverly's assessment. 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. There is nothing in the passage to suggest that Waverly lies to June’s mother. 
14 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. In the months after her mother's death, June struggles to determine the 
significance of the carved jade pendant. She thinks "the carvings mean something," but fears that she 
will never know what they meant to her mother. June discovers that others grapple with the same 
mystery after talking to a bartender who can only "guess" what his own pendant means. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. The passage makes no attempt to contrast the relationship of June and her 
mother with the relationship of the bartender and his mother. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. Although June mentions several possible interpretations of the carvings in her 
pendant, at no point does she suggest that the pendant symbolizes such a grandiose concept as " the 
mystery of life and death." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. June's conversation with the bartender does not help her decipher the meaning 
of her jade pendant. The encounter only supports her theory that people who wear such pendants are 
"all sworn to the same secret covenant, so secret we don’t even know what we belong to." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Nothing in the passage implies that June finds it easier to talk to strangers than 
to people who are close to her. June does not ask her aunts and friends about the meaning of the 
pendant because she knows that their interpretations would be "different from what my mother 
intended." And although June says that "in a crowd of Caucasians, two Chinese people are already like 
family," she does not imply that it is easier to talk to the bartender than to relatives or friends. 
15 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. The passage indicates that people of Chinese descent are often seen wearing
oblong jade pendants, which suggests that the giving of such a pendant is a traditional act. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. June may have felt that her mother's actions at the dinner party warranted an 
apology, but nothing in the passage suggests that the gift of the pendant was a "plea for forgiveness." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 

Choice (C) is incorrect. June's pendant had great sentimental value, but nothing in the passage suggests 
that these pieces of jewelry are extravagant, or costly, gifts. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Unprecedented" means having no previous example. The giving of a jade 
pendant may be a generous act, but it cannot be described as "unprecedented," since it is common for 
people to give the pendants to others. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. The gift of the jade pendant may have initially seemed unremarkable to June, but 
the mysterious necklace took on great significance after her mother's death. 
16 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. The passage mainly deals with "the long-standing fear that many people have
about bats," which "tells us less about bats than about human fear." The authors uses numerous 
examples to elaborate on his assertion that people's perceptions about bats are not based in fact but in 
human psychology. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. The number of bat species is irrelevent to the author's central argument, which 
is that fear limits many people's understanding of the animal. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The author's main point does not concern humans' actual vulnerability during the 
night, but their fear of nocturnal predators. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The author mentions bats' potential usefulness as a reason that people should 
overcome their fear of bats, but their medicinal benefits are not the main point of the passage. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. Myth and literature have depicted human feelings about bats, but not the "true," 
fact-based nature of the bat. 
17 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. "Classic" in this context describes the distinctive "quotation mark"-shaped bites 
that vampire bats are well-known for leaving on their victims. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 

Choice (A) is incorrect. It is illogical to claim that bat incisions are literary, or book-related. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. It is unlikely that tiny "pinprick incisions" would be enduring, or long-lasting. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The author would not likely describe bat bites as elegant, or refined. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. The incisions are not significant, or important. According to the passage, these 
small bites do not even wake the victims. 
18 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. According to the first paragraph, a component of vampire bat saliva may
potentially prove useful in the treatment of heart patients. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The author explains that vampire movies are actually based on tropical vampire 
bats. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The first paragraph provides examples of different bats' eating habits but does 
not claim that the majority of tropical bats do not eat meat. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. The passage clearly states that the anitcoagulant in vampire bat saliva "is not 
toxic to humans." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. The author describes several bat behaviors and claims to have studied bats 
intimately. 
19 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. The passage asserts that people's wariness of bats stems from an irrational fear of 
creatures that defy "normal" human behaviors. The author places quotation marks around the word 
"normal" to stress that normalcy is a subjective concept often applied by people with limited viewpoints. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 

Choice (A) is incorrect. The use of quotation marks in line 26 indicates that the author is referencing a 
concept that he or she does not necessarily agree with. It says nothing about the individuality of the 
author's writing. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The author does not claim that humans are obsessed with time but suggests that 
people project their negative associations with the night onto bats. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. The quotation marks around "normal" suggest that the author disagrees with the 
common use of the term. The author implies that people's idea of normalcy is based on individual 
perception instead of fact. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. The enunciation of the word "normal" is irrelevent. The author uses quotation 
marks in this context to suggest that fears based on people's perception of "normal" time have 
ultimately hindered the study of bats. 
20 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. The author's argument in the second paragraph is based on the idea that humans 
are afraid of the night because they are by nature active during the day, and that creatures who live by 
night inhabit an eerie dream world in which "reality is warped." That humans might dream at night about 
bats and other nocturnal creatures is not, however, contradicted by the statement that "dream imagery 
has its source in the dreamer's personal life," since it stands to reason that other instances of dream 
imagery come from commonly held objects of fright such as bats. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. The claim that many people keep the same hours that bats do undermines the 
author's argument that humans "need to wake by day and sleep by night." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The assertion that people are not afraid of nocturnal owls detracts from the 
author's argument that humans fear bats simply because they are night dwellers. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The author claims that "although we are accustomed to mastering our world by 
day, in the night we become vulnerable as prey." The assertion that "most dangerous predators hunt 
during the day" directly undermines this argument.
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. The idea that some cultures have positive associations with bats detracts from 
the author's argument, which asserts that the human fear of bats is widespread. 

21 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. The third paragraph draws examples from mythology, religion, and superstition. 
These are all central topics in anthropology, which is the study of human cultures and traditions. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The examples cited in the third paragraph are not autobiographical because they 
are not drawn from the author's own life. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. Although the third paragraph mentions Bram Stoker's Dracula, which is a work 
of fiction, the examples of how bats have been portrayed in different cultures are all true. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. Paragraph 2 offers a glimpse into the psychology behind people's fear of bats, 
but the third paragraph is entirely concerned with the animal's historical and cultural significance. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. A biological description of bats is offered in the first paragraph, not the third. 
22 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. The third paragraph begins with the argument that bats have always carried a 
stigma. This thesis is supported by numerous examples illustrating how different civilizations have 
negatively viewed bats through time. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. All examples presented in the third paragraph build on a single argument. The 
author does not indicate that there are opposing viewpoints. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The author tries to make a point in the third passage, but does not assert that
his or her argument is significant enough to be considered a universal truth. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. The examples in lines 43–66 support the paragraph's thesis instead of refuting 
it. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 

Choice (E) is incorrect. The sweeping assertion that humans "everywhere" have "always" been 
frightened of bats reflects the author's opinion, which is not necessarily a common or widely held 
viewpoint. 
23 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. According to the passage, only the ancient Egyptians "prized bat parts as medicine 
for a variety of diseases." Other groups mentioned in the third paragraph seem to have confined the bat 
to a mythological or superstitious role. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. The passage describes the Finnish peasants' belief "that their souls rose from 
their bodies while they slept and flew around the countryside as bats," but it does not indicate that they 
had any practical use for bats. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The ancient Maya believed in a bat god, but the passage does not indicate that 
the Mayan people found bats useful, as the ancient Egyptians did. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. A number of Central American cultures saw the bat "as god of death and the 
underworld," not as a useful animal. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. The passage says that English-speaking people identify bats with vampires and 
horror stories, neglecting their potential usefulness. 
24 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is the correct answer. Stoker's Dracula is based on the human fascination with vampires and 
their supposed cruelty. Such a novel supports the author's belief that the fear of bats doesn't tell us 
about bats' nature, but about human perceptions. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. The author describes bats as "sweet-tempered" in the first paragraph, but 
Stoker's work portrays them as "bloodsucking monsters." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. According to the passage, humans express less of a "curiosity about nocturnal 
creatures" than an irrational fear of bats. Lines 60–66 suggest that Stoker's novel played upon this fear. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 

Choice (D) is incorrect. Nothing in lines 60–66 supports the claim that "bats can see better than humans 
at night." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Much of the third paragraph addresses bats' role in folklore, but the reference to 
Stoker's work does not. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by changing "Canada" to "in Canada" so that 
Great Britain's museums are compared to Canada's museums rather than to Canada itself. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves an illogical comparison. Museums in Great Britain are illogically compared to Canada 
itself rather than to museums in Canada. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) results in an illogical sentence. It makes no sense to say that Canada visited museums in 
Great Britain. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) involves an improper idiom. The phrase "than compared to" is used where it would be more 
idiomatic to use the word "than." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) involves the use of an ambiguous pronoun. It is not clear whether the pronoun "ones" refers 
to tourists or to museums. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by providing a subordinate clause introduced by 
"which," thus consolidating the two complete thoughts into one complex sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) results in a comma splice. Two complete thoughts ("Conners... Dispatch Education" and "it 
manufactures school uniforms") are connected by only a comma. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) results in improper subordination. It provides a modifying phrase ("manufacturing school 
uniforms") instead of the subordinate clause that is needed. 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) involves the use of an ambiguous pronoun. It is not clear what the pronoun "it" refers to. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) creates improper coordination; a full clause with a subject and verb should follow a semicolon, 
not just a prepositional phrase. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by adding the word "newspaper" after the word 
"town" so that the two things being compared are in the same logical category. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves an illogical comparison. It compares the college newspaper with a town, not with 
that town's newspaper. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) makes an illogical comparison. The college newspaper is compared with a town, not with 
another newspaper. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) uses an incorrect idiom. The preposition "like" is improperly used after "as much." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) involves an incorrect idiom. The preposition "like" is not appropriate for use after "as much" 
to connect a dependent clause ("the one in my hometown does") to the main clause. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by reducing an independent clause to a phrase, 
eliminating the unnecessary words "and," "they," "it," and "to." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves wordiness. The words "it" and "to" are not needed. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) displays wordiness. The words "and," "it," and "to" are unnecessary. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 

Choice (C) involves improper subordination. The pronoun "which" does not refer to any noun previously 
used in the sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) involves vague pronoun reference. The pronoun "this" incorrectly refers to the action of 
emptying potatoes on the highway, rather than to any noun actually used in the sentence. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by making "the chairperson" the subject to which 
the modifying phrase "Having thought... care" properly refers. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves improper modification. It illogically provides the modifying phrase "Having thought... 
care" to refer to the noun phrase "that the committee... solution." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) results in an illogical sentence. The modifying phrase "Having thought... care" is illogically 
used to refer to the noun phrase "the chairperson's extreme frustration." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) creates improper modification. The resulting sentence is unsatisfactory because the 
modifying phrase "Having thought... care" illogically refers to the noun phrase "the chairperson's 
frustration." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) results in improper modification. The resulting sentence is unsatisfactory because the 
modifying phrase "Having thought... care" illogically refers to the noun phrase "the committee's failing... 
solution." 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by changing the singular verb "is" to the plural 
verb "are," and it repeats the phrase "that they" to emphasize parallel elements in the sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) has an error in subject-verb agreement. The singular verb "is" does not agree with its plural 
subject "reasons." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 

Choice (B) fails to maintain parallelism in stating the two reasons. The noun phrase "demanding 
assignments" is not parallel with the clause "they work at part-time jobs." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) contains an error in subject-verb agreement. The singular verb "is" does not agree with its 
plural subject "reasons." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) displays a flaw in parallelism. The phrase consisting of an adjective and a noun, "demanding 
assignments," is not parallel with the verbal phrase "working at part-time jobs." 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. It avoids excess words and maintains parallelism where it is needed ("7,500 feet 
above sea level and 400 feet above the valley floor"). 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) involves wordiness. The word "high" and the phrase "having measured" are not needed. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) displays wordiness. The phrase "that of" is unnecessary. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) does not maintain parallelism. The clause "it ascends 400 feet above" is not parallel with the 
phrase "7,500 feet higher than sea level." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) includes excess words. The phrase "high measured from that of" could be reduced to one 
word, "above." 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by changing the phrase "returning...years," which 
appears to modify "small town," to the clause "when Margo...years." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves improper modification. The introductory phrase, "Returning to Dayville after ten 
years," cannot logically modify the noun, "town," that immediately follows. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 

Choice (B) displays improper modification. The introductory phrase, "Having returned to Dayville after 
ten years," cannot logically modify the pronoun, "it," that immediately follows. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) has an error in verb tense sequence. The present tense of the verb "seems" is not consistent 
with the past tense of the verb "returned." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) involves improper coordination. Two complete thoughts ("Margo returned . . . years" and 
"the small town was . . . there") are connected by only a comma. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by using the appropriate conjunction, "and," to 
link the third item in a series, "humor," to two earlier items, "pathos" and "tragedy." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves improper coordination. The phrase "as well as" improperly connects the third item 
in a series, "humor," to two earlier items, "pathos" and "tragedy" that are joined by only a comma. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) fails to maintain parallelism. The phrase "her humorous side" is not parallel with the earlier 
nouns "pathos" and "tragedy." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) displays wordiness. The words "both," "and" (the first use in this sentence), and "also" are 
not needed. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) displays a flaw in parallelism. The verbal phrase "being humorous" does not continue the 
parallel pattern established by the earlier nouns, "pathos" and "tragedy." 
10 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by removing “he went” so that the resulting
phrase is a modifier rather than a complete thought. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves improper coordination. Two complete thoughts (“Richard Wright moved . . . life” and 
“moving from the South first he went . . . States”) are connected by only a comma. 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) involves improper coordination. It presents two independent clauses (“Richard Wright 
moved . . . life” and “the first move he made was . . . France”) that are joined by only a comma. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) involves improper coordination. Two independent clauses (“Richard Wright moved . . . life” 
and “moving first from the South, he came . . . France”) are connected by only a comma. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) involves improper coordination. The resulting sentence uses only a comma (instead of a 
connecting word like “and” or “but”) to connect two complete thoughts (“Richard Wright moved . . . life” 
and “first from the South he moved . . . States”). 
11 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. It avoids the pronoun reference error of the original by placing the noun phrase 
"space research center" immediately after the phrase that describes it ("Though heavily dependent . . . 
for talent"). 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves an unclear pronoun reference. The pronoun "it" in the concluding clause has no clear 
referent. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is a sentence fragment. It does not state a complete thought because it has no verb. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) involves improper modification. The introductory phrase "Though heavily dependent . . . 
information" does not logically modify the noun, "universities," that immediately follows. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) displays an error in modification. The introductory phrase "Though heavily dependent . . . 
information" comes immediately before the noun "universities" but can not logically modify that noun. 
12 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Corrected Sentence: Fourteen years after the Galileo space probe was launched from the space shuttle 
Atlantis, the mission was purposely ended when the Galileo disintegrated in the dense atmosphere of 
the planet Jupiter. 
Explanation for Correct Answer C : 

The error in this sentence occurs at (C), where the present-tense verb "disintegrates" does not agree 
with the past-tense verbs "was launched" and "was... ended" earlier in the sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The word "after" is properly used to introduce the subordinate clause "the 
Galileo... Atlantis." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
There is no error at (B). The word "when" is properly used to introduce the subordinate clause "the 
Galileo... Jupiter." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The preposition "in" is properly used to introduce a prepositional phrase; the 
adjective phrase "the dense" properly modifies the noun "atmosphere." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 
13 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Corrected Sentence: The sentence contains no error. 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : There is no error in this sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The singular verb "is" agrees with its singular subject "labor union," and the 
verb form "negotiating" properly indicates continuing action. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
There is no error at (B). "That" is the appropriate relative pronoun to introduce the dependent adjective 
clause ("that will satisfy . . . management"). 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The verb phrase "will satisfy" is appropriately in future tense to indicate an 
action that has not yet happened. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The verb phrase "be acceptable" is parallel with the earlier verb "satisfy," and 
the preposition "to" is an appropriate idiom to connect that verb phrase with the noun phrase "all
levels." 
14 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Corrected Sentence: Many professional athletes are motivated by either personal pride or love of their 
sport, but some seem interested only in money. 

Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
The error in this sentence occurs at (B), where an improper connective is used. The conjunction "and" 
is used instead of "or" to join one noun phrase ("love of their sport") to another noun phrase ("personal 
pride") that is preceded by the word "either." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The plural verb "are" agrees with its plural subject "athletes." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The plural verb "seem" agrees with its plural subject "some," and the present 
tense of "seem" is consistent with the present tense of the earlier verb "are." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The prepositional phrase "in money" correctly completes the thought of the 
sentence, and the adverb "only" is properly placed to indicate how limited the motives are. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 
15 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Corrected Sentence: Even though only parts of clay vessels may be recovered, these pottery shards are 
invaluable to the archaeologist because they are virtually indestructible. 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
The error in this sentence occurs at (D), where the singular pronoun "it" and the singular verb "is" do not 
agree with the plural subject of the main clause, "shards." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The phrase "Even though" is properly used to introduce a subordinate clause. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
There is no error at (B). The verb phrase "may be," which may be singular or plural, agrees with its 
plural subject, "parts of clay vessels." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The adjective "invaluable" combines with the preposition "to" to produce an 
appropriate idiom. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 
16 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Corrected Sentence: Along the curve of islands known as the Florida Keys lies a reef of living coral, the 
only one of its kind in the continental United States. 

Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
The error in this sentence occurs at (D), where there is a use of an improper idiom. It is more idiomatic 
to use the phrase "the only one of its kind." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The preposition "Along" is properly used to introduce the prepositional phrase 
"Along the curve of islands known as the Florida Keys." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
There is no error at (B). The singular verb "lies" agrees with its singular subject, "reef." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The pronoun phrase "the only one" agrees with its antecedent, "reef." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 
17 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Corrected Sentence: The sentence contains no error. 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : There is no error in this sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The possessive pronoun "whose" is properly used to introduce a subordinate 
clause. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
There is no error at (B). The singular verb "has influenced" agrees with its singular subject, 
"background." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The singular verb "describes" agrees with its singular subject, "Paule Marshall." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The adverb “vividly” modifies the verb “describes” in an appropriate way. 
18 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Corrected Sentence: Because he was absent when his rivals voted against his proposal, Selby is worried 
about missing future meetings of the board of directors. 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 

The error in this sentence occurs at (A), where the sequence of verb tenses is incorrect. The verb "is" (in 
present tense) is improperly used with the verb "voted" (in past tense) to describe two actions that 
happened at the same time. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
There is no error at (B). Between the verb "voted" and the noun "proposal," the preposition "against" 
provides the appropriate idiom. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The singular verb "is worried" agrees with its singular subject "Selby," and the 
present tense of this verb correctly describes a current condition. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The prepositional phrase "about missing future meetings" is an appropriate 
idiom to modify the verb "is worried." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 
19 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Corrected Sentence: 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : There is no error in this sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The plural pronoun "those" is properly used to indicate some particular cities. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
There is no error at (B). The phrase "in which" is properly used to introduce a subordinate clause. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The plural verb "are" agrees with the plural noun "pedestrians"; the adverb 
"rarely" is properly used to modify the adjective "involved." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The adjective "involved" combines with the preposition "in" to produce an 
appropriate idiom. 
20 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Corrected Sentence: Social scientists agree that a system for exchanging goods and services is not only 
present but also necessary in all societies. 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 

The error in this sentence occurs at (D) where there is a lack of parallelism. The prepositional phrase "of 
necessity" is not parallel with the earlier adjective "present." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The plural verb "agree" agrees with its plural subject "scientists," and the 
connecting word "that" functions properly to introduce a dependent clause. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
There is no error at (B). The prepositional phrase "for exchanging goods and services" correctly modifies 
the noun "system." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The phrase "not only" is the proper idiom for use along with the later phrase "but 
also" in linking two closely related items. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 
21 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Corrected Sentence: The report Alexander is discussing, a report prepared jointly by him and the 
committee, does not take into account the socioeconomic status of those interviewed. 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
The error in this sentence occurs at (B), where the pronoun case is incorrect. The pronoun "he" is in the 
subjective case, but its position in the sentence (as object of the preposition "by") requires the objective 
case. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The singular form of the verb "is discussing" agrees with the singular subject 
"Alexander," and the verb's present tense is consistent with that of the later verb, "does." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). "Take into account" is an appropriate idiom to indicate what the report does or 
does not consider. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The prepositional phrase "of those interviewed" correctly modifies the noun 
"status." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 
22 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Corrected Sentence: "It is far easier to ride a bicycle than to explain in words exactly how a bicycle is 
ridden." 

Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
The error in this sentence occurs at (B), where there is a lack of parallelism." The use of "explaining" 
(instead of "to explain") breaks the pattern established earlier by the use of "to ride." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). "Easier" is the correct form of the adjective to use in comparing two activities, 
and the adverb "far" is used properly to modify the adjective. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The subordinating conjunction "how" correctly introduces a dependent noun 
clause ("how a bicycle is ridden"), and the adverb "exactly" is properly placed as a modifier. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The singular verb "is" agrees with its singular subject "bicycle," and "ridden" is 
the correct form of the verb to use after the helping verb "is." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 
23 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Corrected Sentence: 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : There is no error in this sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The adverbial phrase "for the most part" is properly used to modify the verb 
"wanted." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
There is no error at (B). The adverbial phrase "after graduation" is properly used to modify the verbal 
phrase "to travel." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The verb "thought" combines with the preposition "about" to produce an 
appropriate idiom. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The verbal phrase "taking a job" is properly used to express what Jorge thought 
about. 
24 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Corrected Sentence: Some people are convinced that dowsing, a method of finding underground water 
with a Y-shaped stick, is effective, but others condemn the procedure as mere superstition. 

Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
The error in this sentence occurs at (A), where the use of an unnecessary conjunction creates a sentence 
fragment. Including the subordinating conjunction "since" makes the entire first clause ("Since some 
people are convinced . . . effective") dependent, leaving the sentence with no independent clause to be 
coordinated with the clause introduced by "but." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
There is no error at (B). The word "convinced" is the proper form of the verb to combine with the helping 
verb "are," and "that" is the appropriate subordinating conjunction to introduce the dependent adverb 
clause ("that dousing . . . is effective"). 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The preposition "as" is an appropriate idiom to connect the verb "condemn" with 
the noun phrase "mere superstition." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). Both the noun "superstition" and the adjective that modifies it, "mere," are 
appropriate word choices to complete the idea of the sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 
25 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Corrected Sentence: The sentence could be corrected as follows: "Intense preoccupation with technique 
appears to be the one trait that great pianists have in common." 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
The error in this sentence occurs at (A), where the idiom is inappropriate. "On" is not the correct 
preposition to use after the noun "preoccupation." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
There is no error at (B). The singular verb "appears" agrees with its singular subject "preoccupation," 
and the infinitive "to be" is an appropriate phrase to connect "appears" with the rest of the sentence.
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). "One" agrees with the singular noun "trait," which it modifies. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The plural verb "have" agrees with its plural subject "pianists," and the 
preposition "in" is idiomatically correct when used between the verb "have" and the noun "common." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 
26 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 

Corrected Sentence: The sentence could be corrected as follows: "Apparently impressed with our plans, 
the foundation awarded Carlos and me a grant to establish a network of community centers throughout 
the city." 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
The error in this sentence occurs at (B), where the case of the pronoun is incorrect. The pronoun "I" is 
in the subjective case, but its position in the sentence (as an indirect object in the phrase "awarded 
Carlos and me") calls for the objective case. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The idiom "impressed with" is correctly used as part of an introductory phrase 
("Apparently . . . plans"), and this entire phrase is properly placed to modify the noun "foundation." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The infinitive "to establish" functions correctly to introduce a phrase ("to 
establish . . . city") and to describe the "grant." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The preposition "throughout" is appropriate to connect the phrase "of 
community centers" to the noun phrase "the city." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 
27 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Corrected Sentence: Also supported by the commission were the proposed health clinics and the 
proposed center to distribute information on job-training opportunities. 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
The error in this inverted sentence occurs at (B), where the singular verb "was" does not agree with its 
plural subject, "health clinics and . . . center." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The adverb "also" is properly used to indicate additional action by the 
commission, and the verb form "supported" is correctly combined with the helping verb "was" to 
produce the appropriate verb tense. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The noun "center" is parallel with the noun "clinics," and together they form a 
compound subject. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The preposition "on" combines with the preceding noun "information" to 
produce an appropriate idiom, and the compound adjective "job-training" is properly used to modify the 
noun "opportunities." 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 
28 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Corrected Sentence: "The quality of multivitamin tablets is determined by how long their potency can be 
protected by the manufacturer's coating material." 
Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
The error in this sentence occurs at (C), where there is disagreement between a singular pronoun and 
the plural noun to which it refers. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The singular verb "is determined" agrees with its singular subject "quality," not 
with the plural noun "tablets" in the phrase between the subject and the verb. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
There is no error at (B). The phrase "how long" is appropriately used to indicate a period of time. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The verb phrase "can be protected" describes action beginning in the present 
and is therefore consistent with the earlier present tense verb "is determined." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 
29 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Corrected Sentence: The research study reveals startling proof of a constantly changing seafloor that 
comprises the major part of the underwater landscape. 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
The error in this sentence occurs at (B), where the adjective "constant" is used instead of the adverb 
that is needed to modify the participle "changing." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
There is no error at (A). The singular verb "reveals" agrees with the singular noun "research study." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
There is no error at (C). The singular verb "comprises" agrees with the singular noun "seafloor." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
There is no error at (D). The noun "part" combines with the preposition "of" to produce an appropriate
idiom. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence. 

30 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. The essay is about communication between employers and employees, and so this 
is an appropriate introductory sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is unsatisfactory because it is about the variety of workplaces, not about relationships 
between people. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is unsatisfactory because it is about a problem that is not touched on in the essay. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is unsatisfactory because the essay is not about employers' efforts to respect their 
employees. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is unsatisfactory because the essay is not about the future. 
31 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. It combines the two sentences by using a word ("but") that clearly separates the 
employers' from the workers' actions, and it replaces the vague phrase "he or she too should also" with 
an appropriate plural phrase ("workers, too, must"). It also improves the original by clarifying the word 
"responsibility." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is unsatisfactory because the connecting word "when" illogically suggests a cause-effect 
relationship between the employers' and workers' obligations rather than a reciprocal one. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is unsatisfactory because it illogically makes the pronouns "he or she" from the original 
sentence refer to the employers. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is unsatisfactory because it places the employers' actions in a subordinate clause ("whose... 
demands"), illogically suggesting that only some workers need to take responsibility. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 

Choice (E) is unsatisfactory because it indicates a joint action by a compound subject ("employees and 
employers") rather than two separate actions by two different groups; also, it is not clear what the 
pronoun "them" refers to. 
32 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. It replaces the pronoun "This" with the phrase "Such treatment" as an equivalent 
to the "unreasonable demands" described in Sentence 6, and it provides the verb "demonstrates" to 
express the link between that treatment and the employer's lack of consideration. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is unsatisfactory because it illogically suggests a contrast between "unreasonable demands" 
and a "lack of consideration." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is unsatisfactory because it involves the use of a vague pronoun. There is nothing in the 
sentence or its context that "they" could logically refer to. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is unsatisfactory because it creates an illogical and vague sentence. The pronoun phrase
"This concern" is used illogically to refer to the "unreasonable demands" described in Sentence 6.
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is unsatisfactory because it results in a sentence that does not relate well to the previous 
sentence. The phrase "Such a distorted view" illogically refers to the "unreasonable demands" described 
in Sentence 6. 
33 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. It corrects the error in coordination by changing the second independent clause 
("this can make . . . undervalued") into a phrase ("making workers feel undervalued") that modifies 
"employer," the subject of the first independent clause. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is unsatisfactory because two complete thoughts ("Sometimes the employer does . . . 
employees" and "this can make . . . undervalued") are connected with only a comma and without a 
linking word, like "and." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is unsatisfactory because the plural pronoun "they" does not agree with the singular noun 
"employer" in the previous sentence, and the pronoun "this" is vague. 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is unsatisfactory because the verbs "had not listened" and "made" describe actions in the 
past, while all the verbs in the sentences before and after this one describe actions in the present. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is unsatisfactory because it consists of two phrases ("An employer who . . . employees" and 
"making workers feel undervalued") that do not state a complete thought. 
34 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. The adverb "sometimes" suggests a shift to another type of problem, and the 
phrase "legitimate complaints" prepares for the examples of inappropriate employee behavior that 
follow. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is unsatisfactory because it introduces a new topic ("the role of technology") that the essay 
never mentions. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is unsatisfactory because it focuses on a topic ("effective communication with customers") 
that is not relevant to paragraph three and only slightly relevant to paragraph two. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is unsatisfactory because it is not consistent with sentence 10, which clearly identifies 
problems caused by employees. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is unsatisfactory because it emphasizes legitimate complaints by employees rather than the
problems some employees cause, as described in sentence 10. 
35 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. It introduces no new material but concludes, from the examples already discussed 
in the essay, that employers and employees share responsibility for problems in the workplace. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is unsatisfactory because it focuses on a workplace problem, "safety hazards," that the essay 
never mentions. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 

Choice (B) is unsatisfactory because it emphasizes a shortcoming of employers but ignores the 
workplace problems blamed on employees in paragraph three. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is unsatisfactory because it introduces a completely new topic, "the challenge of technology." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is unsatisfactory because it introduces a new workplace problem (poorly defined duties) 
instead of drawing a conclusion based on the problems already discussed. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. "Counsel" means advice. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence 
would read "Though Luis eagerly sought her counsel, he subsequently chose not to heed that advice." 
The word "that" in the second clause indicates that the woman's "counsel" is the same advice that Luis
chose not to follow. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Secretiveness" in this context means confidentiality. If one were to insert this 
term into the text, the sentence would read "Though Luis eagerly sought her secretiveness, he 
subsequently chose not to heed that advice." It is possible that Luis approached someone for advice in 
confidence, but "secretiveness" is not synonymous with "advice" and therefore does not agree with the 
structure of this sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Cooperation" means the act of working together toward a common purpose. If 
one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read "Though Luis eagerly sought her 
cooperation, he subsequently chose not to heed that advice." Although it is common for someone to
solicit "cooperation," this term does not have the same meaning as "advice." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Understanding" in this context means sympathy or good sense. If one were to 
insert this term into the text, the sentence would read "Though Luis eagerly sought her understanding, 
he subsequently chose not to heed that advice." This term does not logically complete the sentence
because "understanding" does not mean the same thing as "advice." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Concord" means agreement. If one were to insert this term into the text, the 
sentence would read "Though Luis eagerly sought her concord, he subsequently chose not to heed that 
advice." It is plausible that Luis would seek someone's agreement, but "concord" would not be later 
referred to in the sentence as "that advice." 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 

Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. "Passion" in this context means boundless enthusiasm, and "contagious" means 
infectious. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "As a young physics 
instructor, Richard Feynman discovered that he had the gift of sharing his passion for his subject and 
making that excitement contagious." The word "and" indicates that the parallel verb phrases introduced 
by "sharing" and "making" are similar in meaning. "Passion" and "contagious" complete the sentence
well, because it is easy to imagine Feynman's intense enthusiasm for physics rubbing off on his students 
and colleagues. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Knowledge" in this context means understandling gained through study. 
"Inaudible" means impossible to hear. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence 
would read "As a young physics instructor, Richard Feynman discovered that he had the gift of sharing 
his knowledge of his subject and making that excitement inaudible." It is likely that Feynman wished to 
share his knowledge with others, but illogical that he would have a gift for making his enthusiasm 
inaudible. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Contempt" means scorn, and "praiseworthy" means highly commendable. If 
one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "As a young physics instructor, 
Richard Feynman discovered that he had the gift of sharing his contempt for his subject and making that 
excitement praiseworthy." Feynman certainly did not express any sign of contempt for his subject, and 
there's no indication that he intended for his excitement to elicit praise from others. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Propensity" means an innate inclination, and "futile" means useless. If one were 
to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "As a young physics instructor, Richard
Feynman discovered that he had the gift of sharing his propensity for his subject and making that 
excitement futile." Although it is plausible that Feynman had a gift of sharing his propensity for physics, 
he certainly didn't want to make his excitement futile, or frivolous. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Commitment" in this context means an emotional or intellectual bond, and 
"impersonal" means showing no emotion or personality. If one were to insert these terms into the text, 
the sentence would read "As a young physics instructor, Richard Feynman discovered that he had the 
gift of sharing his commitment for his subject and making that excitement impersonal." It is very 
possible that Feynman had a gift of sharing his commitment to physics with others, but it is unrealistic 
to assert that Feynman had an impersonal connection to a subject that elicits such excitement from him. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. "Catastrophic" means disastrous, and "constructive" means helpful. If one were to 
insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "As catastrophic as the disintegration of the 
Roman Empire must have seemed, that disaster nevertheless presented some constructive aspects." 
The word "nevertheless" signals an important contrast between the first and second parts of the 
sentence, so the two missing terms must differ in meaning. This allows for Rome's collapse to be 
described as both "catastrophic" and "constructive." 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Momentous" means of utmost significance. "Formidable" in this context means 
awe-inspiring. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "As momentous 
as the disintegration of the Roman Empire must have seemed, that disaster nevertheless presented 
some formidable aspects." While it is logical to say that the fall of Rome was "momentous," the term 
"formidable" does not provide the contrast that the sentence's structure requires. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Decisive" in this context means crucial, and "unavoidable" means inevitable. If 
one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "As decisive as the disintegration 
of the Roman Empire must have seemed, that disaster nevertheless presented some unavoidable 
aspects." The deterioration of the Roman Empire was certainly decisive, but "nevertheless" indicates a 
contrast in meaning that "unavoidable" does not express. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Unexpected" means without warning. "Ambiguous" means uncertain. If one 
were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "As unexpected as the disintegration 
of the Roman Empire must have seemed, that disaster nevertheless presented some ambiguous 
aspects." "Unexpected disintegration" does not directly contrast with "ambiguous aspects" in the way 
that the sentence requires. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Advantageous" and "beneficial" are synonyms. If one were to insert these 
terms into the text, the sentence would read "As advantageous as the disintegration of the Roman 
Empire must have seemed, that disaster nevertheless presented some beneficial aspects." The word 
"nevertheless" indicates that the words in the blanks should be nearly opposite in meaning. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. "Shroud" is a synonym of "cloak," which means to cover or conceal. The colon, 
which divides the sentence into two parts, indicates that the second half of the sentence elaborates upon 
the claim made in the first half. If one were to insert "shroud" into the text, the sentence would read 
"The beauty of Mount McKinley is usually cloaked: clouds shroud the summit nine days out of ten." This 
statement makes sense, as it likens the clouds that gather around Mount McKinley's peak to a covering 
that obscures the mountain's appearance. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Release" means to let go. If one were to insert this term into the text, the 
sentence would read "The beauty of Mount McKinley is usually cloaked: clouds release the summit nine 
days out of ten." The clouds do not release, or free, Mount McKinley in any way. The verb "cloaked" 
instead suggests that the clouds hide the mountaintop from view. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Elevate" means to lift. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence 
would read "The beauty of Mount McKinley is usually cloaked: clouds elevate the summit nine days out 

of ten. This term does not logically complete the sentence, because clouds are not capable of elevating 
a mountain's summit. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Entangle" in this context means to twist or entwine together. If one were to 
insert this term into the text, the sentence would read "The beauty of Mount McKinley is usually cloaked: 
clouds entangle the summit nine days out of ten." The clouds may appear to wrap around the mountain, 
but the clouds and the mountain do not twist themselves around each other. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Attain" means to achieve an objective. If one were to insert this term into the
text, the sentence would read "The beauty of Mount McKinley is usually cloaked: clouds attain the 
summit nine days out of ten." "Attain" is not a synoynm of "cloak," and therefore does not logically 
support the claim made in the first half of the sentence. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. "Opportune" means occurring at a fitting or advantageous time. The first part of 
the sentence describes the timing of Walker's entry into the hair-care market. The semicolon indicates 
that the missing term will reflect the nature of her timing. If one were to insert "opportune" into the text, 
the sentence would read "Madame C. J. Walker introduced her first hair-care product just as demand 
was reaching its peak; this opportune marketing made her a millionaire." Walker took advantage of the 
high demand for hair-care products, so her timing was indeed opportune. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Instantaneous" means occurring as quickly as possible. If one were to insert 
this term into the text, the sentence would read "Madame C. J. Walker introduced her first hair-care 
product just as demand was reaching its peak; this instantaneous marketing made her a millionaire." 
While "instantaneous"does refer to timing, the sentence says nothing to imply that Walker's marketing 
was immediate. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Intermittent" means stopping and starting at intervals. If one were to insert this 
term into the text, the sentence would read "Madame C. J. Walker introduced her first hair-care product 
just as demand was reaching its peak; this intermittent marketing made her a millionaire." But the 
sentence does not suggest in any way that the marketing of Walker's first hair-care product was 
discontinuous or irregular. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Dubious" means arousing doubt. If one were to insert this term into the text, 
the sentence would read: "Madame C. J. Walker introduced her first hair-care product just as demand 
was reaching its peak; this dubious marketing made her a millionaire." The sentence does not imply that 
Walker's marketing methods were dubious. On the contrary, it praises Walker for spotting an 
advantageous business opportunity. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 

Choice (E) is incorrect. Marketing a hair-care product when demand reaches its peak is not extravagant, 
or excessive; it is sensible and opportune. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. "Smugness" means the exhibition of self-righteousness. "Legitimate" means to 
justify. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "A scientist should not 
automatically reject folkways that might at first seem silly or superstitious; scientific qualifications are 
not a license for smugness, nor do they legitimate prejudice or bias." The word "nor" links two clauses 
that express the same point of view about scientific qualifications. The first clause after the semicolon 
asserts that scientific qualifications do not excuse arrogance, just as they do not legimitate, or justify,
prejudice or bias. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Experimentation" means the act of conducting scientific tests. "Eliminate" 
means to remove or get rid of. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read 
"A scientist should not automatically reject folkways that might at first seem silly or superstitious; 
scientific qualifications are not a license for experimentation, nor do they eliminate prejudice or bias." 
Experimentation has nothing to do with rejecting folkways or with prejudice, and there is nothing to 
indicate a relationship between scientific qualifications and the removal of prejudice or bias.
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. "Arrogance" means the state of feeling superior to others. "Pursue" means to 
follow or to strive for. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "A 
scientist should not automatically reject folkways that might at first seem silly or superstitious; scientific 
qualifications are not a license for arrogance, nor do they pursue prejudice or bias." It is logical to assert 
that scientific qualifications are not a license for arrogance, but it does not make sense to say that these 
qualifications do not pursue prejudice or bias. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Humility" means modesty, and "advocate" means to argue in favor of. If one 
were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "A scientist should not automatically 
reject folkways that might at first seem silly or superstitious; scientific qualifications are not a license for 
humility, nor do they advocate prejudice or bias." It would be incorrect to claim that scientific 
qualifications do not allow scientists to be modest. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Rigidity" means inflexibility, and "console" means to comfort. If one were to 
insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read "A scientist should not automatically reject 
folkways that might at first seem silly or superstitious; scientific qualifications are not a license for 
rigidity, nor do they console prejudice or bias. The first part of the clause may be read that scientists 
should not rigidly reject folkways, but it is illogical to say that scientific qualifications do not comfort 
prejudice or bias. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 

Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. The quoted term “wire-pullers” appears in a description of the manipulation thesis, 
which contends that nameless members of powerful political groups use television to control the 
opinions of the public. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. The wire-pullers identified in the text are implied to be powerful manipulators of 
public opinion, not bland technicians. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. Although the author might believe that critics are trying to manipulate the public 
into protesting television, the term “wire-pullers” refers directly to the political dominators. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. In this passage, wire-pullers exist within the manipulation thesis. Hack writers, 
however, do not. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. While advertisers may be manipulators of public opinion, they are not the agents 
of political domination mentioned in the passage. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. "Viewing" means watching. If one were to insert this term into the text, the clause 
would read "television viewing leads above all to moral dangers." The author refers to television 
consumption in an explanation of the imitation thesis. Because this thesis warns of the moral dangers 
associated with watching television, it can be easily inferred that the reference to television 
consumption concerns television viewing. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. "Destruction" means complete ruin. If one were to insert this term into the text, 
the clause would read "television destruction leads above all to moral dangers." While the imitation 
thesis argues that television has a destructive impact on morality, it would not make sense to say that 
television destruction leads to moral dangers. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. "Erosion" means the wearing away or deterioration of something. If one were to 
insert this term into the text, the clause would read "television erosion leads above all to moral 
dangers." The thesis suggests that television viewing can erode morals, but it is illogical to say that 
actual televisions erode. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. "Purchasing" means buying. If one were to insert this term into the text, the 
clause would read "television purchasing leads above all to moral dangers." While most people watch 

televisions that they have purchased, the imitation thesis refers most directly to the dangers of viewing, 
not buying, televisions. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. "Obsession" means an excessive preoccupation with something. If one were to 
insert this term into the text, the clause would read "television obsession leads above all to moral 
dangers." But people who are obsessed with television are not the only ones who fall victim to its 
dangers. According to the text, the imitation thesis asserts that "anyone who is exposed to the medium" 
is vulnerable. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. These lines describe the imitation thesis, which the author suggests dates back to 
the eighteenth century when novels were largely condemned. The author's tone suggests that the 
imitation thesis is as unjustified today as it was when applied in the eighteenth century. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. The author does not refer to any time period prior to the eighteenth century. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The author does not suggest that the principal concern of eighteenth-century 
cultural critics was the danger of reading novels. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The author asserts that theses based on morality have never been persuasive. 
Even in the eighteenth century, according to the author, such arguments only amounted to “vain 
warnings.” 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. The author does not suggest that television is a medium for art. 
10 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. In these lines, the author suggests that the imitation thesis relies on the same 
morally simplistic arguments that were made about early novels. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. The author points out the origins of the imitation thesis, not the origins of 
television. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 

Choice (B) is incorrect. The author does not imply that culture has declined. Television critics are more 
likely to make this implication. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The author's discussion of the imitation thesis is not concerned with visual 
imagery. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. The author does not discuss television producers. 
11 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. The quoted terms appear in a description of the simulation thesis. According to this 
thesis, primary reality describes the everyday world and secondary reality refers to fictionalized 
versions of life that are portrayed on television. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. Politics play a role in the manipulation thesis, not the simulation thesis. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. Neither natural nor synthetic objects are mentioned in the passage’s summary 
of the simulation thesis. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. The simulation thesis does not address the morals of television viewers. Morality 
is a key issue in the imitation thesis. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Although the author implies that anti-television theses are not based on scientific 
evidence, the passage does not include any direct references to the views of scientists or mystics. 
12 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. The author criticizes the simulation thesis by stating that television viewers are 
perfectly capable of distinguishing between an argument on television and an argument at home. 
Proponents of the simulation thesis, however, would likely assert that their argument is more complex 
than the author describes. There may be ways that television distorts reality that are not captured in the 
author's basic, literal example. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 

Choice (B) is incorrect. The author claims that the simulation thesis disregards the issues of proof and 
plausibility. This is a significant point to make when discrediting a theory. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The author's professional credentials are not known. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. The author is equally skeptical of each thesis. He makes no attempt to support 
one at the expense of another. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. The author does consider the impact of television on popular culture and implies 
that television viewing is not as harmful as critics maintain it to be. 
13 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. “Scornful” means mocking. From the opening summation of the critics' theory that 
“Television makes you stupid,” to the sarcastic claim that critics show “immunity in the face of…idiocy,” 
the author's tone is consistently scornful. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. “Intrigued” means interested. While the author is interested enough to respond 
to the critics’ theories, he or she primarily finds the theories to be incorrect and insulting. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. “Equivocal” means undecided, but the author attacks television critics in a way 
that would be better described as decided or unequivocal. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. “Indulgent” means lenient. The author is not lenient in his criticism of the 
television commentators, however. The author treats them instead with mocking dismissal. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. “Nonchalant” means casual. While the author occasionally adopts a lighthearted 
style, the passage’s tone conveys a serious disagreement with the critics' conclusions. 
14 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. The author suggests throughout that the four theories are unconvincing, 
condescending to viewers, and even illogical. 

The author sarcastically dismisses the arguments of the critics and highlights the foolishness of their 
claims. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. The author presents little evidence to refute the theories. Instead, the author
points out the lack of evidence to support the theories. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The author neglects to cite authorities. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The author mentions the eighteenth century only briefly; the focus is primarily 
on the present. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. While the author does challenge the assumptions of the manipulation thesis, 
erasing the distinction between those who control television and those who are controlled by it is not the 
primary point of the passage. 
15 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. The author states that most television critics see viewers as passive victims who 
have lost their ability to be critical of what they see on television. The critics' theses discussed in the 
passage imagine viewers as uncritical and passive. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. The author does not mention comedy programs. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. Although the passage accuses critics of assuming that viewers are uncritical, it 
does not mention comedy programs. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. The critics' theories hold that viewers are too passive to be aware of political 
content on television, even when they are being manipulated. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. Only Statement II is supported by the passage. The author does not mention 
comedy programs, and the critics' theories hold that viewers are unaware of political content on 
television. 
16 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 

Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. The author describes the four theories in detail, but peppers his criticism with irony. 
In lines 33–35, for example, his summary of the stupefaction thesis is loaded with sarcasm: “Television 
produces, therefore, a new type of human being, who can, according to taste, be imagined as a zombie 
or a mutant.” 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. The author's tone would be better described as smug than “earnest,” or 
heartfelt. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. The author does not include or make reference to any academic documentation. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The critics make gloomy predictions about the future, but the author does not. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. The author does not refer to any data. 
17 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. “Absolute” in this context means not to be doubted. If one were to insert this term 
into the text, the sentence would read “Unlike everyone else, the theorist has remained completely 
intact morally, can distinguish in an absolute manner between deception and reality, and enjoys
complete immunity in the face of idiocy that he or she sorrowfully diagnoses in the rest of us.” The 
author uses the term “sovereign” to describe the absolute, unequivocal way in which he claims 
television critics make judgments. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. “Excellent” means of the highest quality. If one were to insert this term into the 
text, the sentence would read “Unlike everyone else, the theorist has remained completely intact 
morally, can distinguish in an excellent manner between deception and reality, and enjoys complete 
immunity in the face of idiocy that he or she sorrowfully diagnoses in the rest of us.” The use of a 
positive adjective such as “excellent” in an insult would match the sentence’s sarcastic tone. However, 
the author is referring more directly to the unwavering nature of the critics’ manner. “Absolute” is 
therefore a better response. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is incorrect. “Opulent” means luxurious. If one were to insert this term into the text, the 
sentence would read “Unlike everyone else, the theorist has remained completely intact morally, can 
distinguish in an opulent manner between deception and reality, and enjoys complete immunity in the 
face of idiocy that he or she sorrowfully diagnoses in the rest of us.” It would be illogical in this context
to describe the critics’ manner as luxurious. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 

Choice (C) is incorrect. “Elitist” means favoring members of a certain group or class. If one were to
insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Unlike everyone else, the theorist has remained 
completely intact morally, can distinguish in an elitist manner between deception and reality, and enjoys 
complete immunity in the face of idiocy that he or she sorrowfully diagnoses in the rest of us.” There is 
no suggestion that the critics' sovereign manner of making judgments is meant to favor any particular 
group. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. “Oppressive” means burdensome or tyrannical. If one were to insert this term 
into the text, the sentence would read “Unlike everyone else, the theorist has remained completely 
intact morally, can distinguish in an oppressive manner between deception and reality, and enjoys
complete immunity in the face of idiocy that he or she sorrowfully diagnoses in the rest of us.” Because 
this sentence is sarcastically praising the critics, it would be stylistically inconsistent for the author to 
describe them with a derogatory term such as “oppressive.” 
18 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. The “fatal loophole” that the author sets up refers to the possibility that television 
critics are actually not exempt from the effects of television that they describe in their theories. The first 
word of line 62, “or,” signals that the sentence will counter the sarcastic claim, made in the previous 
sentence, that critics are free from television's dangers. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) is incorrect. The paragraph in question does not mention politics or politicians. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The paragraph does not discuss occasional behavior; the author refers instead 
to “universal stupefaction," a permanent condition assumed to affect everyone. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. The author does not make a distinction between “serious” and “mindless”—in 
fact, that is an error the critics are accused of making. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. The author does not discuss the enjoyment of television. 
19 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. In the final paragraph, the author attacks politicians with the same cutting irony 
used to malign the critics. Lines like “the conviction that one is dealing with millions of idiots…is part of 
the basic psychological equipment of the professional politician” are both humorous and contemptuous. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 

Choice (B) is incorrect. The author's tone, while sharply critical, does not indicate outrage or 
embarrassment. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) is incorrect. The author does not seem to be puzzled at all. In fact, the passage seems to be 
written with a good deal of certainty. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) is incorrect. While the author may be resigned to the current state of affairs, he or she is
clearly not relieved. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is incorrect. The author is notably unsympathetic to manipulative politicians. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by using an appropriate idiom, "to explore," to 
follow the verb "hope" and introduce a phrase describing the researchers' goal. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) uses an inappropriate idiom. The verbal form "exploring" is not the proper word to follow the 
verb "hope" and introduce a phrase that describes a specific research goal. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) introduces a vague pronoun. The sentence contains no noun to which the pronoun "it" can 
refer. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) displays wordiness. Two words, "have hopes," can be reduced to one, "hope." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) uses excess words. Five words, "are having hopes of exploring," can be reduced to three, 
"hope to explore." 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) avoids the error of the original by providing a verb phrase (introduced by the verb "recruited") 
to complete the main clause begun by the name "H. Ford Douglas." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 

Choice (A) results in a sentence fragment. The sentence is grammatically incomplete because it has no 
main verb. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) fails to connect the opening phrase ("H. Ford Douglas. . .War") to the main clause which has 
the noun "he" as its subject. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) creates a sentence fragment. It provides an independent clause (introduced by the pronoun 
"he") instead of the verb phrase needed to complete the main clause. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) involves a sentence fragment. The use of improper forms of the verbs ("having... recruited
and commanded" instead of "recruited and commanded") leaves the sentence grammatically 
incomplete. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. Instead of using pronouns, it repeats the nouns "ignorance" and "stupidity" to 
avoid any ambiguity. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is wordy. The words "while the same is not true about" could be reduced to "but not." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) uses ambiguous pronouns. It is unclear whether the pronouns "it" and "other" refer, 
respectively, to "ignorance" and "stupidity" or to "stupidity" and "ignorance." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) includes an ambiguous pronoun. The pronoun "its" can refer to either of the two nouns, 
"ignorance" or "stupidity." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) is vaguely worded. The verb phrase "differ regarding correctibility" does not specify whether 
it is ignorance or stupidity that is correctible. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 
Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by using a verb phrase, "should also stir," that is 
parallel with the earlier verb phrase, "should present." 

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) fails to maintain parallelism. The phrase "with their goal to stir" is not parallel with the earlier 
verb "should present." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) displays a flaw in parallelism. The phrase "aiming at the same time to stir" is not parallel with 
the earlier verb "should present." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) exhibits a lack of parallelism. The phrase "also trying to stir" and the earlier verb "should 
present" are not parallel. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) involves noun-pronoun disagreement. The singular pronoun "its" does not agree with the 
plural noun "journalists," to which it presumably refers. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by including a necessary transition word, the 
preposition "by." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) omits a necessary connective word. Two verbal phrases ("tested the endurance" and 
"devised various ordeals") are linked by only a comma instead of a conjunction like "and." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) uses improper modification. The long verbal phrase ("devising various ordeals . . . stinging 
nettles") does not logically modify the noun that is immediately before it, "warriors." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) involves improper coordination. It inappropriately uses a semicolon to link parts of the 
sentence that are not grammatically equal - a complete thought before the semicolon and an incomplete 
thought after it. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) displays wordiness. The phrase "with the" can be reduced to one word, "by," and the 
preposition "of" is not needed. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 

Choice (E) is correct. It avoids the errors of the original by using the appropriate word, "that," to 
introduce the clause telling what was asserted, and by placing the adverbs "legally" and "ethically"
immediately before the adjective they modify, "defensible." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) uses an inappropriate idiom and incorrect word order. The phrase "as to" is not appropriate 
after the verb "asserted," and the adjectives "legal" and "ethical" are incorrectly placed away from the 
noun they describe, "defensibility." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) involves an inappropriate idiom and confused wording. After the verb "asserted" the phrase 
"as to" is not idiomatic, and the two nouns "practices" and "defensibility" are illogically linked by the 
conjunction "and." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) displays wordiness. The phrase "that is the operators" is unnecessary. There is a lack of 
parallelism in the phrase "in legal terms as well as ethics." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) involves wordiness. The phrase "in regards to defensibility" is not needed. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer E : 
Choice (E) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by making the phrase "as an eloquent historian" 
exactly parallel with the earlier phrase "as a great novelist." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) fails to maintain parallelism. The independent clause "she wrote eloquently of the history" is 
not parallel with the earlier phrase "as a great novelist." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) results in a lack of parallelism. The verbal phrase "having written an eloquent history" is not 
parallel with the earlier prepositional phrase "as a great novelist." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) fails to maintain parallelism. The verbal phrase "writing eloquently about the history" is not 
parallel with the earlier prepositional phrase "as a great novelist." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) does not maintain parallelism. The verbal phrase "being an eloquent historian" is not parallel 
with the earlier prepositional phrase "as a great novelist." 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATION

Explanation for Correct Answer A : 
Choice (A) is correct. It presents two thoughts, the first subordinated to the second, in one complex 
sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) involves improper modification. It provides a verbal phrase ("Central Park... being better 
known") that does not modify the subject or verb of the main clause. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) creates an illogical sentence. It leaves the phrase "Although... Central Park" far away from 
the only phrase ("Prospect Park") it can logically modify. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) results in improper subordination. It provides an independent clause ("he preferred Prospect 
Park") instead of a subordinate clause introduced by the pronoun "who." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) involves the use of an ambiguous pronoun. It is not clear what the pronoun "both" refers to. 


ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by providing an independent clause ("almost no 
solar... planet") that avoids the use of an unnecessary and ambiguous pronoun. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves the use of an ambiguous pronoun. It is not clear what the pronoun "this" refers to. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) has unsatisfactory repetition in the structure. ("Because..., this accounts..."). 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) results in a sentence fragment. It leaves the main clause of the sentence ("is the reason") 
without a subject. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) creates an illogical sentence. The pronoun "it" cannot logically modify the noun "Uranus." 
10 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 


Explanation for Correct Answer B : 
Choice (B) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by making "I" the subject to which the modifying 
phrase "Lacking good instruction" properly refers. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves improper modification. It illogically uses the modifying phrase "Lacking good
instruction" to refer to "my mistakes." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) results in improper modification. The modifying phrase "Lacking good instruction" illogically 
refers to the clause, "there were numerous... trends." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) involves illogical word order. It is not clear whether the phrase "with numerous mistakes" 
refers to "a graph" or to "trends." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) involves the improper use of modification. The sentence is unsatisfactory because the 
modifying phrase "Lacking good instruction" illogically refers to the phrase "the graph." 
11 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. The subordinating conjunction "that" properly introduces a dependent adverb 
clause ("that they have no practical interests") to complete the description begun by the 
adverb-adjective combination "so absorbed." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves improper coordination. The description begun by the adverb-adjective combination 
"so absorbed" should be completed by a subordinate clause introduced by "that" instead of a coordinate 
clause introduced by "and." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) involves improper emphasis. The omission of the adverb "so" before the adjective "absorbed" 
results in a sentence that does not sufficiently emphasize the degree to which mathematicians are said 
to be absorbed in abstractions, a degree so great as to exclude any interest in practical matters. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
Choice (D) involves improper emphasis. The placement of the adverb "so" before "much abstraction" 
rather than before "absorbed" results in a sentence that improperly emphasizes how abstract
mathematics is rather than the degree to which mathematicians are absorbed in abstractions. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 

Choice (E) involves improper coordination. The use of the connecting phrase "and so" to introduce the 
second clause illogically suggests that a myth causes mathematicians to have no practical interests. 
12 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
 
Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by providing an appropriate subject, "you," for 
the modifying phrase, "By simply... number". 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves improper modification. It improperly makes the noun phrase "a catalog order" the 
subject of the modifying phrase "By simply... number." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is a sentence fragment; the sentence has no subject. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) involves the improper use of a pronoun. The pronoun "they" does not refer to anyone 
previously mentioned. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) results in improper modification. The phrase "By simply... number" cannot logically modify 
"your catalog order." 
13 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer C : 
Choice (C) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by locating "not only" before the verb "establish" 
and providing a phrase ("land on Neptune") to parallel the phrase "establish bases on the Moon."
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves a lack of parallelism. The expression introduced by "not only" is a phrase, while that 
introduced by "but also" is a clause. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) is wordy and results in the use of an improper idiom. It would be more idiomatic to locate the 
word "will" immediately after "not only." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : 
The incorrect word order in Choice (D) results in wordiness and a lack of parallelism. To be appropriately 
parallel the clauses should read "not only will we establish bases on the moon but also land on Neptune." 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 

Choice (E) involves the use of an improper idiom. The phrase "not only...Moon" is used in parallel with 
the phrase "but...Neptune." It would be more idiomatic to use the phrases "not only... Moon" and "but 
also land on Neptune." 
14 

ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 

Explanation for Correct Answer D : 
Choice (D) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by providing a verb phrase (introduced by the 
verb “speak”) to complete the subordinate clause begun by the pronoun “who.” 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : 
Choice (A) involves improper subordination. It provides an independent clause (“the languages at home 
range . . .Zapotec”) where a verb phrase (like “speak languages”) is needed to complete the subordinate 
clause begun by the pronoun “who.” 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : 
Choice (B) involves improper subordination. An independent clause (“speaking at home is . . .Zapotec”) 
is used instead of a verb phrase (like “speak languages”) to complete the thought begun by the pronoun 
“who.” 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : 
Choice (C) involves improper subordination. The use of an independent clause (“the languages range . . . 
home”) instead of a verb phrase (like “speak languages”) leaves the pronoun “who” without any role to 
play in the sentence. 
Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : 
Choice (E) involves improper subordination. It provides an independent clause (“they are speaking . . . 
Zapotec”) where a verb phrase (like “speak languages”) is needed to follow the pronoun “who.” 

 

 

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