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2012年5月SAT亚洲区真题篇章阅读解析

2013/06/0312:56来源:互联网  

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文/ 张 登

      作者简介:上海新航道学校教学校长,教育专业世界排名前三的伦敦大学教育研究院(Institute ofEducation)教育学硕士,美国哥伦比亚大学师范学院研修学者。SAT、澳门至尊平台、澳门至尊娱乐全科培训师,教师培训官,教学管理规划师。著有《SAT 核心词汇21 天速听速记》。新航道国际教育集团《美国高考第一频道》编委会主编。美国教育考试服务中心澳门至尊平台官方认证培训师。

     本文试图为同学们提供一种思考方式,大家可以沿袭这种模式(包含“文章短记”、“核心词汇”、“难题剖析”三个方面)对SAT OG 和真题文章进行整理,这样能够保证全面锻炼篇章阅读所需的各种技能,为高分开路。

本文分为三个部分:

1. 文章短记:简要介绍本次考试篇章阅读的文章情况。

2. 核心词汇:收录文章中影响理解的部分重点词汇,并附上英文解释以供参考。

3. 难题剖析:通过对本次考试中两道难题的剖析,向同学们展示最终选出正确答案前,有效的分析步骤是什么。

文章短记

单短篇1:

文体:议论

主题:西班牙语与英语的结合

语言难度:4 (难词率高)

难题:9 (感情色彩判断,线索隐晦)

单短篇2:

文体:散文

主题:休斯顿火箭中心的衰落与周边景观的变化

语言难度:3

难题:12(干扰项E,有过度推导嫌疑)

单长篇:(70 行)

文体:散文

主题:黑人回忆种族隔离时期作为少年/ 少女的自己的阅读经历与精神体验

语言难度:3

难题:18(类比题,类比双方涉及的因素较多);22(干扰项使用一个易混词,将区分度降至很低)

短对比:

P1 论点:博客作为新的新闻媒体,比传统的新闻媒体更优越,因其有互动性。

P2 论点:博客与传统新闻媒体无区别,因其快节奏的新闻更替,故擅长发布新闻,不擅长开发新的想法,更不适用于学术界。

难题:8(通过高频词原则把握P2 的核心主旨)

中长篇1:(50 行)

文体:说明

主题:岩石渗水性的过程分析

语言:3(与澳门至尊平台接近)

难题:14(演绎题,线索为原文圈定范围的最后一句,比较难找)

中长篇2:(64 行)

文体:散文(前半段记叙体,后半段议论体)

主题:作者回忆儿时的房车给

自己和家庭带来的体验,并联想与丈夫共同探讨人类基因的流动性

语言难度:4(生活类名词较多)

难题:16(作用题,涉及幽默);

24(题目思路不严谨,原文证据匮乏)

长对比:

P1:(语言难度:3)

主旨:大学因商业化正失去自己的独立性

A. 大学与商业机构的合作正违背自己的学术精神价值观

B. 大学教育‘产品’的服务化使得学生无心向学,教授的职业精神遭受挑战

P2:(语言难度:3)

主旨:

A. 大学的商业化在历史上已有先例,属于经常发生的现象

B. 然而今天的大学商业化并不比历史上严重,因为每个时代的大学中总有一股学者的力量抵制着商业化,保存着大学学术的独立精神

难题:8(原文相关信息少,证据模糊);

9(证明题,抓住原文命题的主要概念);

10(细节题,考察熟词僻义);

14(功能题,考察让步结构);

19(主旨关系题,考察单词的准确理解)

核心词汇

单短篇1

    ubiquitous : present ,appearing, or found everywhere amalgam: a mixture or blend endorse: declare one's public approval or support of:stagnant: (of a body of water or the atmosphere of a confined space) having no current or flow and often having an  unpleasant smell as a consequence inexplicable: unable to be explained or accounted for

单短篇2

ambience: the character and atmosphere of a place dismantle: take (a machine or structure) to pieces beckon: make a gesture with the hand, arm, or head to encourage someone to come nearer or follow

单长篇

segregate: set apart from the rest or from each other; isolate or divide ravenous: extremely hungry alight: (of a bird) descend from the air and settle execrable: extremely bad or unpleasant amiss : not quiteright ;inappropriate or out of place rectify: put something right ; correct impose: force (something unwelcome or unfamiliar) to be accepted or put in place gory: involving or showing violence and bloodshed genre: a category of artistic composition, as in musicor literature , characterized by similarities in form, style, or subject matter.

短对比

arena: a place or scene of activity, debate, or conflict freewheeling: acting without concern for rules, conventions, or the consequences of one's actions egalitarian: of, relating to, or believing in the principle that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities chew over: discuss or consider something at length

中长篇1

porous: (of a rock or other material) having minute spaces or holes through which liquid or air may pass.insinuate: slide (oneself or a thing) slowly and smoothly into a position crevice: a narrow opening or fissure, esp. in a rock or wall. ensue: happen or oc cur afterward or as a result façade: the face of a building,esp. the principal front that looks onto a street or open space crumble: break or fall apart into small fragments, esp. over a period of time as part of a process of deterioration salt-impregnated: soaked or saturated with salt

中长篇2

miniature: (esp. of a replica of something) of a much smaller size than normal; very small upholstery: soft, padded textile covering that is fixed to furniture such as armchairs and sofas. squint: look at someone or something with one or both eyes partly closed in an attempt to see more clearly or as a reaction to strong light beige: a pale sandy  yellowishbrown color thrall: the state of being in  someone's power or having great power over someone tip-tap: an alternating light knocking or tapping contour: an outline, esp. one representing or bounding the shape or form of something sweeping: wide in range or effect fatalistic: the belief that all events are predetermined and therefore inevitable. anticlimax: a disappointing end to an exciting or impressive series of events play down: make (something) appear less important than it really is grudge: a persistent feeling of ill will or resentment resulting from a past insult or injury

长对比

egregious: outstandingly bad;shocking mandate: an official order or commission to do something at odds: in conflict or at variance clause: a particular and separate article, stipulation, or proviso in a treaty, bill, or contract. veto: a constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a law-making body ordeal: a painful or horrific experience, esp. a protracted one infringement: the action of limiting or undermining something self-righteous: having or characterized by a certainty, esp. an unfounded one, that one is totally correct or morally superior smug: having or showing an excessive pride in oneself or one's achievements serene: calm, peaceful, and untroubled; tranquil lament: express one's deep grief utilitarian: designed to be useful or practical rather than attractive ingrain: firmly fix or establish (a habit, belief, or attitude) in a person dividend: a sum of money paid regularly (typically quarterly) by a company to its shareholders out of its profits (or reserves).undertaking: a formal pledge or promise to do something idiosyncratic: of or relating to idiosyncrasy; peculiar or individual

特殊用法:

disinterested: not influenced by considerations of personal advantage bent: a natural talent or inclination brave : endureorface

(unpleasant conditions or behavior)without showing fear divine: discover (something)by guesswork or intuition fault: an extended break in a body of rock, marked by the relative displacement and discontinuity of strata on either side of a particular surface. weather : we a r awa y o r change the appearance or texture of (something) by long exposure tothe air sport: wear or display (a distinctive or noticeable item)frequent: visit (a place) oftenor habitually

难题剖析

一、

单短篇1:

西班牙语与英语的结合,Question 9

9. The author of the passage regards the “hybrid” (line 9) as something

(A) inexplicable (B) ingenious(C) ludicrous (D) ominous (E)unfortunate

    原文句:A sign of the growing Latino presence in the United States is the astonishingly creative amalgam spoken by many people of Hispanic descent in major cities and in rural areas as well: neither Spanish nor English, but a hybrid known as Spanglish .

解析: 本题为态度题。态度题为议论文中专司作者立场的题型,核心要点为寻找感情色彩词。

   本题常误选A,因本句的下两句是‘The term is controversial, and so is its impact. Purists refuse to endorse Spanglish as a vehicle of communication; they regard speech as stagnant, when in truth it undergoes eternal renovation.’选A 的同学认为,既然‘混种语’这个概念颇具争议,且从下句话中可看出这个概念内部的矛盾性,则可以理解‘inexplicable’(不可解释的)。但这是一个干扰项。

    SAT 阅读中最大的学问在于干扰项的排除,即在‘剩余两个符合了多种原文条件的选项之间做最后的选择’。基本的步骤是,1. 仔细检查是否有原文误读;2. 仔细检查是否有选项误读;3. 划出两个选项中最具关键性的词汇;4. 将划出的词汇进行比较,原文中线索越明显的越正确;5. 若以上步骤还不能排除,则选择与全文主旨逻辑最吻合的选项。

     我们来比较A 和B:‘ 不可解释的’和‘天才的’,与原文进行比对。支撑‘ 不可解释的’ 之证据来源于后一句, 且从‘ 矛盾的’得出‘不可解释的’需要一定的推理步骤;支撑‘天才的’之证据来源于本句,线索为‘惊人地具有创意的混合体’(astonishingly creative  amalgam)。比较后我们认为B 优于A, 因为1. amalgam是hybrid 之同义替换;2. creative对应ingenious 时基本可以算同义替换, 不需要推理步骤;3.creative 与ingenious 同属褒义词,这一点符合态度题的考察技能。故B 的线索比A 明显,选择B。

二、单长篇:

     黑人回忆种族隔离的时期作为少年/ 少女的自己的阅读经历与精神体验,Question 22。

22. The author mentions“ Agatha  Christie ’ s Mi s sMarple” (line 64) in order to

(A) liken a real person to afictional character

(B) substantiate a point abouta literary genre

(C) show how his tastes hadchanged when he returned to reading mysteries

(D)exemplify how a detective's methods are presented in mystery novels

(E) identify a unique character in mystery novels

      原文句:Many mystery novels have older women as detectives—Agatha Christie’s Miss Marple being the most well known. There is no other literary genre in which older women are treated with such dignity, respect, and love.

      解析:本题为功能题,宗旨是考察学生对以句子和段落为单位的文本之写作逻辑的理解。要点在于抓住考察句与前后句的逻辑关联,并在选项中选出相应的词汇即可。许多同学会在B 和E 之间徘徊。

比较:

     B = substantiate a point about a literary genre 支撑证据 = a point 指代前句话‘Many mystery novels have older women as detectives’。可以认为这句话使用many mystery novels 作为主语,具有明显的概括功能(generalization),故而称为a point 也没错。同时literary genre指代mystery novels,且在下句话原文重现。

     E = identify a unique character in mystery novels 支撑证据 = a unique character 同样可以指代前一句话‘identify a unique character in mystery novels’,将其视为‘神秘小说的一种特点’。同时mystery novels 是原文重现。

 ‘原文重现’原本是一种姑且可以尝试的判断标准。假设AB 两个选项,说的意思差不多,同学不能读出区别,则可以尝试排除掉重现原文单词或词组的那个选项,原因是干扰项设置有时会采用重复原文单词,但改换其单词的含义这种做法。

     但是在本题中,两个选项都有原文重现的现象,不容易从中判断。那么这道题看来两个选项的性质非常接近,到底该选谁呢?难道题目出的不严密?本次考试中的确有出的不严密的题目,但不是这一道。回顾一下我们前面所说的判断,有一条其实并未做好:‘仔细检查是否有选项误读’。看出来了么?其实E 选项根本不是我们理解的那个意思。

     出题人从学生的语料库中掌握到, 不少学生不能正确区分character 和characteristic。单以名词性质而论,前者的意思是1. 人的品格;2. 汉字;3. 角色。后者的意思就一个:特点。许多学生看到character,加上本题的语境影响,先入为主地认为这是‘特点’的意思,导致判断的依据出现偏差。所以E 选项的意思并不是‘确定神秘小说的一种特点’,而是‘确定多部神秘小说中的一个人物’。这种指代不明的干扰项,明显不是针对逻辑误区而设置的,而是针对语言点‘character vs. characteristic’而设置的。尾记词汇是思考的基本单位。SAT需要即将进入美国大学1、2 年级接受通识教育的各位candidate 具备较强的‘精准思考’技能。这意味着许多词汇所代表的概念,不管外延还是内涵,都需要同学们有比较明确的认识。比如长对比19 题的正确选项里有一个词是development。

选项句是’critical of a current development, whereas Passage 2 places that development in its historical context’。下面是两个development 相关的定义:

• a new and refined product or idea: the latest developments in information technology.

• an event constituting a new stage in a changing situation: I don't think there have been any new developments since yesterday.

    原文P1 谈‘最近这些年来大学被严重商业化了’, 所以使用development 这个词绝对是恰到好处,对应上面的第二个定义。当然我们不能否认,越是学到深处,词汇的定义就越难。比如你能否定义‘ 分析’(analysis)?我们使用这个概念很多年,你能说出它的准确定义么? 实际上你不能。因为这个概念已经广泛应用于多个学科, 而在每个学科里它都代表不同的概念。在business 中有financial statement analysis,price analysis, consumer behaviour analysis 等等, 在statistics 中有scale analysis, factor analysis 等等, 不胜枚举。作为非专业人士, 我们只需要做到基本的‘ 模糊理解’(fuzzy interpretation)即可。比如analysis 必然包含两个动作:1. 将对象进行切割分类(categorization);2. 将分出来的unit 进行关系上的梳理(exploration of relations)。

    这意味着我们需要重新认识语言学习:英语学习是提升精准思维的过程。我并不是说汉语不具备精准思维,但从可供学习的文本量大小上来看,英语的确大于汉语。西式的自然科学之演绎法(deduction)与归纳法(induction)这么多世纪积累于西方,令多国之文明影响力走在其他国家前面,使人不得不重视语言在其中的重要性。

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